Поэзия у Махмуда Кашгарского как свидетельство тюркско-монгольских языковых контактов
Makhmud Kashgari's Diwanu lughati t-turk (written in XI c.) contains a couple of tradition songs fixated by the author. Some unclear sentences and words find Mongolian etymologies and shpuld be tractated as old borrowings. It shows the level of contacts between Turkish and Mongolian languages before the Chingis Empire.
This paper studies sociophonetic variation of palatalized vs. non-palatalized “t” followed by "e" in Russian. It is shown that the choice of palatalized vs. non-palatalized [t] depends on the age and gender of the speaker as well as on the speech situation. Our data show that the most salient correlation is with the age of the speaker.
The paper provides a new theoretical perspective on differential case marking (DCM) in Turkic languages. Specifically, it is suggested that at least some cases of DCM can be analyzed in terms of a version of Marantz's (1991) dependent case theory.
Aims and hypothesis:
The aim of this article is to introduce a case of syntactic borrowing. I test the hypothesis that the uses of volitional forms (optative, imperative, hortative and jussive) in complement clauses of the verbs of wish and in purpose clauses in East Caucasian languages evolve under the influence of Azerbaijanian.
Design/methodology/approach and data and analysis:
The data of 13 languages are considered in the paper. To prove that shared features are contact-induced, two control languages are included in the sample. Archi belongs to the same genetic group as the languages that use volitionals in subordinate clauses, but is exposed to Azerbaijanian to a lesser extent. Axaxdərə Akhvakh belongs to another group, but has strong contacts with Azerbaijanian due to recent migration.
A survey shows that volitionals are used in subordinate clauses most extensively in those languages whose speakers exhibit a high level of bilingualism in Azerbaijanian, and where the contact has been longer. I assume that there is a hierarchy of borrowability of subordinate constructions involving volitionals.
Although the influence of Turkic languages on the languages of the Caucasus in the domain of syntax has been previously discussed, the usage of volitionals in subordinate clauses has not.
It is acknowledged that social factors play an important role in shaping the linguistic consequences of contact. However, evidence of the correspondence between social factors and structural outcomes of language contact is still very scarce. The relevance of two social factors is shown in this paper: the ratio of bilingual speakers and the duration of contact.
I advance the hypothesis that connects the borrowability of particular constructions to their typological frequency, but the typology of subordinate uses of volitionals is not well enough investigated to make final conclusions.
The issues connected with gastronomic culture have become increasingly topical throughout the last two decades. Food, meals, bodily and communicative gastronomic practices reflect dramatic changes of culture. Food is one of the most important and suggestive markers of everyday practices which signify the patterns and the intensity of globalisation. Russian gastronomic culture has always developed in a very specific way with the import of foreign culinary traditions being the main trend of this process. The alien traditions have been adopted first by the elite circles, then by the lower strata of the Russian population to finally become an authentic part of Russian culture. Borrowing foreign gastronomic vocabulary was the hallmark of such assimilation. Although unified fast food still remains the mainstream of the modern gastronomic culture, it is being challenged by a new tendency. The diversity of culinary traditions of different cultures in the globalized world offers an opportunity of forming a bodily identity by choosing one of the exported types of cuisines even at the level of so called Mac-variant. Today, the modern Russian food discourse reflects the process of globalization and macdonaldalisation of the domestic gastronomic culture. The major marker of the latest linguistic changes is the extension of food nominatives as the consequence of the adoption of new foreign nominatives, which denote new gastronomic practices and habits. Such words as “smoothie”, “fresh”, “sushi”, “macchiato” have become an integral part of the active gastronomic vocabulary of Russians. Gastronomic loanwords demonstrate a new crucial tendency in the modern Russian language: the substitution of the native gastronomic thesaurus with a new one of the foreign origin.
The collection comprises more then thirty articles concerning history and actual state of relationship in contact areas of different scales, from neighbourhood up to national and civilisational levels. Relationship between “neighbours” areviewed in a wide temporal perspective using methods of history, culturology, sociology, politology and other humanities.