Образование и преемственность российских инженеров: новые вызовы, старые проблемы (интервью с Ю.П. Похолковым) // Alma mater (Вестник высшей школы). 2016. № 11. С. 3-8.
Papers, presented at 6th Annual ASEE International Forum
The paper is focused on changes in higher engineering education in Russia over the last decade. We assume that, as a result of technological and organizational changes in the markets young engineers are taught to work in, changes in education may be called for. The key change in the markets for engineers in Russia consists of the transition from planned to market economy, and thus the appearance of markets per se, and also in a shift away from a focus on the defense industry. To identify the possible changes and assess the current state of engineering education, we compare opinions of four target groups: university administrators, students, recent graduates, and employers.
The article concentrates on the analysis of new tendencies in the theoretical foundations of historical sociology in the incoming new century. It focuses on the so called “third wave” in sociology which strangely remains unnoticed by historians. Meanwhile the representatives of the “third wave” rejected the fundamental principles of their teachers – creators of many famous concepts of modernization. The new generation in American sociology prefers to focus their studies on topics other than typology, searching for contingency, unpredictability, chains of events, path dependency etc. Here in conceptual approaches to the past social reality we find out deliberate and thought-out attempt to use transformed and formalized but essentially historical methods which are well articulated. The broader object of the research is the historical knowledge and the professional concepts about “subject and method”, the creation of interdisciplinary areas, mutual adoption and interventions.
The paper explores a suitability of higher education quality measurement from student's point of view, and analyses results of interviewing of students from engineering specialties in Perm universities. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis (NLPCA) in interpretation of Gifi system was used as the tool for data processing. It takes into account a dissimilar statistical nature of questionnaire indicators. The method can be very promising for various socio-economic researches.
The world is changing. From shopping malls to transport terminals, aircraft to passenger ships, the infrastructure of society has to cope with ever more intense and complex flows of people. Today, more than ever, safety, efficiency and comfort are issues that must be addressed by all designers. The World Trade Centre disaster brought into tragic focus the need for well-designed evacuation systems. The new regulatory framework in the marine industry, acknowledges not only the importance of ensuring that the built environment is safe, but also the central role that evacuation simulation can play in achieving this.
An additional need is to design spaces for efficiency – ensuring that maximum throughput can be achieved during normal operations – and comfort – ensuring that the resulting flows offer little opportunity for needless queuing or excessive congestion. These complex demands challenge traditional prescriptive design guides and regulations. Designers and regulators are consequently turning to performance-based analysis and regulations facilitated by the new generation of people movement models.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.