Лингвистические аспекты коррекции дислексии и дисграфии: опыт успешного применения комплексного подхода
Language and speech are an integral part of people’s thinking and communication, but recently there has been an increase in the number of children with speech difficulties. The article focuses on the experience of successful dyslexia and dysgraphia correction of 10-year-old Russian speaking child. The correction program consisted of two stages. The first stage is a three-week intensive sessions aimed at improving and automating the child’s language and motor skills necessary for the successful implementation of reading and writing. The second stage is support classes for 12 months. Special attention is paid to the linguistic aspects of the program: the error analysis in terms of language theory and current data in the field of neurolinguistics; the methods help to identify the locus deficit; the principles that underlie the choice of exercises aimed at eliminating the deficit. The approach used may be of interest for professionals working with children suffering from dyslexia or dysgraphia (speech therapists, teachers of the Russian language, foreign language teachers), as well as professionals studying the mechanisms of occurrence and correction of language disorders (linguists, neurolinguists, neuropsychologists).
The mechanisms of lateralization of language processing are still not fully understood by neurolinguistics today. The current study aims to study the relation between language lateralization and such factors as individual handedness, familial sinistrality and tractography metrics of the corpus callosum (CC). We collected fMRI and DTI data, as well as information about individual handedness and familial sinistrality in 50 neurologically healthy Russian speakers. According to the results, language lateralization is related to the volume and fractional anisotropy of CC, as well as individual handedness. Specifically, people with greater right-hand preference and people with a larger volume and higher fractional anisotropy of CC have greater lateralization of language-related activation to the left hemisphere of a brain.
This book presents an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of mental lexicon organization. Several models of visual word recognition as well as brain mechanisms of reading are discussed. Also, such basic neurolinguistic topics are reviewed here as brain structure and functioning, memory organization, models of the mental lexicon and lexical access, electrophysiological approach to speech and language research, aphasia’s types and developmental language disorders (SLI, developmental dyslexia), genetics of language impairments, and so on. Finally, this monograph gives the results of four eye tracking experiments on visual word recognition during reading.
The present book is address to a wide range of researchers (linguists, neurophysiologists, psychologists, artificial intelligence specialists, philosophers) who works are associated with cognitive brain research.
The study is based on the analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs) accompanying processing referentially ambiguous pronouns under condition when disambiguation is necessary for effective task performance. Participants were asked to match the pronoun in the second sentence with its antecedent (the noun phrase it is related to) in the first sentence in two conditions: experimental (two possible antecedents) and control (only one possible antecedent). Processing referentially ambiguous pronouns as compared to the control condition elicited an Nref effect – a diffuse ERP deflection 300–400 ms poststimulus that was earlier observed in Dutch and Chinese. Moreover, in contrast to previous results, no P600 effect – late positivity associated with acceptability judgment under condition of referential ambiguity – was found. Our data in comparison with results of previous studies indicate that strategies in processing referentially ambiguous pronouns (acceptability judgment) are determined not only by experimental task but also by absence/presence of anomalous trials in the experimental materials.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
Acquired disorders of writing in the Russian language have been reported for more than a century. The study of these disorders reflects the history of Russian neuropsychology and is dominated by the syndrome approach most notably by the writings of Luria. Indeed, our understanding of acquired dysgraphia in Russian speakers is conceptualized according to the classical approach in Modern Russia. In this review, we describe the classical approach and compare it to the cognitive neuropsychological models of writing disorders that are developed to explain dysgraphia in English and in other Western European languages. We argue that the basic theoretical assumptions of the two approaches – cognitive and classical or syndrome approach – share similarities. It is therefore proposed that identification of acquired cases of dysgraphia in Russian could potentially benefit from taking the cognitive neuropsychological perspective. We also conclude that adopting elements of the syndrome approach would substantially enrich the understanding of acquired dysgraphia since these offer an insight into processes not described in the cognitive neuropsychological approach.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.