Franks and Eastern Christian Communities: A Survey of their Beliefs and Customs by an Arabic-Speaking Coptic Author (MS Mingana Chr. Arab. 71)
Interactions between various communities of Eastern Christianity are witnessed by many sources. The relationships among them were further strengthened in the wake of the Muslim conquests of the Middle East, when the widespread use of Arabic and frequent migrations contributed to the intensification of contacts. When the Franks arrived in the Middle East, they became a part of this extraordinarily diverse milieu and attracted the attention of Eastern Christian communities. This is witnessed by a series of notes comprising a kind of improvised treatise written by an unknown Arabic-speaking Coptic author. His account will be treated in the following pages. It is worth mentioning that encyclopedic works were quite popular among the Copts in the Middle Ages. One could point out such examples as the comprehensive works by scholars of the famous family of Banū al-ʿAssāl (13th c.), in particular, al-Muʾtaman Abū Isḥāq Ibrāhīm ibn al-ʿAssāl’s Summa of the foundations of religion, and what was heard of reliable knowledge (Mağmūʿ uṣūl ad-dīn wa-masmūʿ maḥṣūl al-yaqīn). Another example is the encyclopedic work Light [Dispelling] the Darkness and A Clear Explanation of the Liturgy (Miṣbāḥ aẓ-ẓulma wa-īḍāḥ al-ḫidma) by another Arabic-speaking Coptic author Abū ʾl-Barakāt ibn Kabar (d. 1324). Both authors used extensive material coming from diverse Christian (and non-Christian) communities throughout their history.
Thematic volume of the Gosudarstvo, religija, cerkov' v Rossii i za rubezhom (2/33, 2015) entitled “Hristianskij Vostok: gosudarstva i mezhkonfessional'nye svjazi” [Christian Orient: The States and Interconfessional Relations]; edited by Dr. N. Seleznyov.
This article explores one of the new forms of the organization of the speech stream, generated by Internet as sphere of speech communication. Investigating the political polemic on the Internet, the article gives a brief description of basic properties of the Internet polylogue.
This volume contains the first editions of a number of works of Syrian authors (in Syriac and Arabic) including two excerpts from John bar Penkaye’s "Ktaba de-resh melle", an excerpt from "The Blessed Compendium" of Jirjis al-Makin ibn al-Amid, an excerpt from the "Kitab al-Majdal", and hymns from the "Warda" collection, as well as a publication of a series of Coptic prayers for travellers. It also contains a discussion of the letters of Nicetas Stethatos available only in Georgian. Other contributions deal with the hagiography (Byzantine, Old Russian, and Syrian, with a special attention to the so-called “verbal hagiography” which is an intermediary field between the written hagiography and the folklore) and the patrology (with a special attention to philosophical problems of Byzantine patristics). Some detailed book reviews discuss, among others, various problems of the late Byzantine and the 19th- and 20th-century Ethiopian and Russian theology.
The article deals with the Messalian movement and its infl uence on three confl icts in the Greek Christian milieu of the IV–V centuries AD. The fi rst confl ict took place in Cappadocia where imperial politics in Church matters put bishop Basil in opposition to his old friend ascetic Eustathios of Sebaste. Both advocated a special type of asceticism close to the ‘Messalian’ one. The ascetics thus nicknamed appeared by the same time in Cappadocia but in the relations of the two churchmen there was no discussion of the ‘Messalian heresy’ and Basil’s type of monastic life was rather ‘Messalian’. The second confl ict arose around John Chrysostom whose background was defi nitely Syriac. His asceticism developed under the guidance of a Syrian monk Julian Sabba, who was at the same time the teacher of Adelphius, the presumed founder of the ‘heresy’. The antipathy towards the archbishop in the capital was partly due to his unusual asceticism of the same ‘Messalian’ type. For the third confl ict around Alexander the Akoiemetos in Constantinople an important testimony is the mention of an unnamed heresy in the Dialogue by deacon Palladius. Tillemont has noted once that the heresy should be clearly the ‘Messalianism’ and there is a proof of it in the treatise by Nilus of Ancyra ‘Ad Magnam’. The main charge against John, Alexander and Adelphius was irregular ascetic behaviour. The analysis of two main lists of the heretical opinions (by Epiphanius and by Theodoretus) shows that none of these was shared by the accused. Thus the opinion of Kmosko, Fitschen and Caner about the falsifi ed nature of the accusation against ‘Messalians’ gets confi rmed. The real cause of the appearance of the ‘Messalian heresy’ lies in the cultural and behavioral confl ict of the two approaches to asceticism: Greek and Syriac.
The article is dedicated to the history and typology of one of the Byzantine liturgical books.
The review-article contains critical remarks and corrections for the Description of the Office Menaia in the «Catalogue of Greek Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Collections of the United States of America»
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.