Understanding entitativity: are there real differences between approaches?
Entitativity is a key construct for understanding group perception. But the problem of understanding this construct is troublesome. There are three theoretical approaches and at least two different empirical strategy of measuring the entitativity. In the Study 1 entitativity is described as three related components: “essence” (group members' similarity), “agency” (goals and group members' interaction) and “unity” (cohesion of the group and the degree of group importance). A series of confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the three-component model of entitativity fitted the data well for different groups (ingroup, outgroup, intimacy groups and social categories) and demonstrated a better fit, compared to the alternative model. The results of study suggest that components of entitativity are interrelated, but not identical to each other. Study 2 demonstrated that using of different ways of understanding entitativity (as “essence”, “agency”, “unity” component or common entitativity scale) doesn’t lead to differences in relationship with blatant prejudice, subtle prejudice, and identification. The implications of the obtained results for future research are discussed.
In the monograph based on the analysis of literature, current criminal procedural legislation and practice of its application are considered problematic, controversial issues related to the preparation and conduct of the identification parade of the living persons on the grounds of appearance and functional dynamic set of skills. Proposed a set of recommendations for further improvement of the legal and criminological foundations of this investigation. Considerable attention is paid to the peculiarities of the procedure, evaluating its results based on summarizing the most common errors made upon presentation of persons for identification. The monograph is designed for law enforcement personnel involved in the disclosure and investigation of crime, prosecutors, judges, lawyers, teachers, researchers, students, cadets and students of law schools, and addressed to a wide circle of readers interested in the performance of investigative actions and problems of proof in Russian criminal procedure.
This manuscript explores alternatives to the currently dominant model of political identification with a nation (nation-state), namely versions of civilizational, cosmopolitan and identification. In the course of the research author concludes that transnational identification can not become a solution to the problem of “identity crisis” for large political communities. However, the theoretical investigation of this form of identification may be relevant to the life strategies of single individuals who face existence under the dominant political order of the nation-state, despite the fact that their practices in a global world has already gone beyond national borders.
The monograph may be of interest to students in the field of political theory, international relations and philosophy, as well as a wide range of readers ingaged in a problem of the construction of political identities in the era of globalization.
Utilising sources that range from 16th century parish registers to the 21st century supermarket loyalty card, this collection examines the history and development of identification documents and surveillance techniques over the past 500 years. Combining the knowledge of several experts from a variety of disciplines, this volume successfully demonstrates how identification and registration can enable and empower a population, particularly if the interests of the state and population coincide. It also reveals the weakness of states or corporations when dealing with issues such as popular resistance and fraud, despite great leaps forward in the scientific methods of identifying individuals. This important book offers a vital contribution to the literature on a variety of topical subject areas such as biometric identification, immigration control and personal data use, as such it is of interest to students and scholars of civil and human rights amongst other disciplines.
15.01.07 Философские вопросы и методология психологии
15.01.11 Современное состояние и перспективы развития психологии
15.21.51 Психология личности
In this paper, I will discuss the existing candidates for action-defining entities and structures (the entities and structures which make some X an action) and propose one more candidate. First, I will examine the standard causal theory which became mainstream in analytical philosophy (although this situation is starting to change). Then I will sketch some arguments against the causal theory of action stemming from the works of earlier analytic philosophers, especially from Wittgenstein’s reflections on the nature of the action. Next, I will try to address the problems of action theory by introducing the concept of will as distinguishing feature of actions. Finally, I will discuss the difficulties concerning the concept of will as I construe it in this paper.
The paper deals with the algorithm of the identification of discrete systems with variable delay, consisting of an ideal sampler, zero-order hold and the linear continuous part. The delay parameter (fractional part of time delay) is estimated through the inverse modified Z-transform. The estimation is based on the equality of the continuous-time part step response to zero at the time delay point. The time delay of the discrete system (integer component) is adjusted by means of the integer part of the estimate obtained.
We make a reconstruction of the main approaches to the study of lay theories of groups, communities and societies, propose a classification and systematization of the main areas which have developed in the framework of cognitive science that address the specifics of the perception of social entities (groups, communities, societies). It is shown that in spite of the weak correspondence of lay notions to the modern scientific theories, the former can serve as a basis for a better understanding of social phenomena.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.