Распределение товаров в складской сети: оптимальные решения по многим критериям
The paper presents the research of features to determine the best solutions for the distribution of the goods in the warehouse network problem on many criteria. The authors have shown that the synthesis of the following methods or approaches can be applied effectively to a network for storage of optimization decisions. 1) Simulation of random orders by Monte Carlo method at a regular interval of supply planning time. 2) Analytical hierarchy process to compare the importance of particular criteria, taking into account the decision maker's preferences. 3) Linear programming in order to minimize transportation and storage costs of the goods (in the format of apriori played out random shop’s orders scenarios to be analyzed in relation to the possible adoption of alternatives, and order execution strategies). The synthesis of these methods makes it possible to formalize a set of alternatives for the organization of deliveries from the central warehouse to the distribution warehouse and shops. The task distribution of the goods in the warehouse network is formalized as the problem of multicriteria selection. It is the implementation of this approach to optimization solutions for the distribution of goods in the warehouse network is presented in this article. As partial criteria are considered: 1) the need to reduce the average daily stock levels, pallets (so the figure would be minimized); 2) the requirement to reduce the average daily cost of storage and cargo handling, USD (thus, the rate and should be minimized); 3) the need to reduce the average daily transport expenses, USD (and this figure will be reduced). Approach to optimize the distribution of goods in the warehouse network, presented in this article has the following characteristics. Along with the procedures of optimization in the article presented a special modification of indicators of partial criteria, which, in contrast to the traditional approaches of the theory of multicriteria optimization, allows more adequately take into account the preferences of the decision maker. This is achieved by the developed synthesis procedures to be taken into account when optimizing the efficient approaches to providing indicators such as in the form of the theory of multicriteria optimization, and in the format of the method of analytic hierarchy. The paper reverals the procedure for determining the best solution on the basis of a) traditional and generalized selection criteria (multiplication, Hurwitz, maximin); b) the method of analytic hierarchy; c) modified selection criteria. The paper also gives recommendations how to adequately take into account the preferences of decision-makers on the importance of particular criteria and also analyzes the impact of changes in their structure on the ranking of alternatives for different selection criteria.
Methodology of solving the problem of warehousing logistics is viewed, including the complex of problems of constructing warehousing network and optimizing warehousing economy. It is shown, that solving the problem of warehousing logistics lies in gradual consideration and mplementation of such taska as working out logistic strategy, including operating of warehousing network; forming optimal network in frame of locating warehousing capacities; projecting (reorganizing) warehousing economy; working out master plan of warehousing economy; working out optimal system of warehousing and volumetric planning decisions.
The problems of managing logistic process at the warehouse are analyzed in frame of optimizing parameters of trade flows, going through warehouse.
Risk Management approach is an essential part of the project. Large industries and particular companies incorporate RM Culture. Statistics shows, that companies with Project Management (PM) Structure reduce cost ineffectiveness up to 20%. In oil and gas industry PM Risk Analysis (PRMA) has been widely used for the last years. Various models and procedures have been developed to manage projects of different scale. Nonetheless, Offshore Projects (OP) complexity, high uncertainty of technical, financial, market and government factors, as well as different sea conditions, still makes sense to improve general PRMA models according to the oil and gas OP features. Traditional RM tools and techniques are not appropriate to cope with complex projects in the Arctic. Companies will have to modify risk assessment process or look for new methods. The paper suggests OPRMM, where the attempt to implement PM tools and techniques together with mathematical modeling and expert assessment is made and institutional factors are included. Practically, it is founded on the comparison between offshore field development in the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea. The reason for research is debates around future Arctic oil and gas projects and their commercial potential. Several large projects with participation of major international companies in the Barents Sea and the prospectivity of the Kara Sea Projects in conditions of technology difficulties are under discussion and have not reached the investment project phase yet. OPRMM starts with identifying the key factors, which could affect offshore field development. Inside the investment regime modified real option value (ROV) model for OP is developed: stop option and scale transformation option. Basing on the binominal trees and Monte Carlo Simulation it is possible to see the perspectives of the OP at an early stage in the conditions of high uncertainty. Incorporating the ROV model into investment regime allows operator to choose the territory to explore. The research shows, that offshore projects in the Arctic offshore is not only under the pressure of internal corporative factors, but also under influence of external institutional factors. New tools and approaches will be required in Arctic projects where no one wants to be looking in the wrong place.
The paper considers the basic statement of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), that the priorities of decision variants on individual criteria are compared on the ratio scales that are not linked to each other and are also independent of the priorities of criteria. According to the mathematical theory of measurement this approach is incorrect. To demonstrate its potential consequences a simple example in which the use of the AHP procedure leads to a clearly erroneous result is provided.
In authors' previous paper published in 2011 in «Control Sciences» journal one example of a bi-criterion decision analysis problem demonstrating that the use of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) may lead to a clearly erroneous result is given. However, the author of another paper published in 2012 in the same journal suggested that he found an error in our use of AHP and, consequently, our criticism of AHP is unsubstantiated. In this new paper the authors show that there was no mistake in the use of AHP in their original counter-example, and provide two further counter-examples that support their original conclusion.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management