Когнитивно-эвристическая модель понимания текста на примере некоторых трудновоспринимаемых определений.
At present time there are three main tendencies in the translation theory: the linguistical trend, the communicative one and the cognitive-psycholinguistic tendency. The cognitive-psychological approach to the translation theory appeared due to the fact that traditional theories of translation (linguistical and communicative ones) had paid too little attention to the investigation of active position of a translator to the assimilation and generation of texts and background facts. In the basis of the cognitive-psychological approach lays the idea that translation process is the verbal and cogitative process that allows a translator to form a certain structure of meanings as the result of the origin text comprehension.
The paper analyzes popularity of different translation models during the two-year’s period (October 2014 – September 2016). The data for the analysis is provided by the Yandex Wordstat service. The comparative analysis of amount of search queries fulfilled by the users of Internet informs that there are several most popular models of translation among others: the semantical theory of translation, the transformational one , the situational one and the theory of levels of equivalence whereas the cognitive-heuristic model of translation is in its formation phase and requires further development.
The article also foregrounds the possibility of the cognitive-heuristic approach not only to the text translation but also to the text comprehension. As the texts under consideration, we have chosen a number of scientific definitions, which are difficult for perception . These scientific definitions have the resemblance representation in Russian and English educational and scientific literature. The process of searching of prototypical meanings of the words, which have contradictory perception and lead to misunderstanding and misconception is represented. In the paper we use the method of introspection and the data of monolingual explanatory dictionaries of Russian and English languages. Through the article, we trace the dependence of comprehension of given scientific definition upon the cognitive-heuristic search. We display the advantages of the appliance of cognitive-heuristic model of translation in comparison with some translation models based on the searching of words-equivalents. The results are verified by the participation of a group of four student.