School Graduates from Small Towns in Russia: Educational and Migration Strategies
Тhis paper used the results of a research project that was implemented at the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service under the President of the Russian Federation in 2015. The data of the quantitative survey of school graduates from the 11th grade of secondary schools in small Russian towns, as well as the materials of expert interviews with representatives of the municipal education departments and school management. The main conclusion of the study is that there is a huge migration potential of youth in small towns, which is mainly related to receiving higher education in large cities, unfortunately without the real prospect of returning to the lesser motherland.
The problem of internal migration of young and educated population from East Germany to the old federal lands and large cities of the new federal lands is considered. German sociologists use intergeneration researches for stimulating intergeneration solidarity and maintaining population in depressed regions as one of the instruments for overcoming the current situation.
The problems of internal migration in Russia in the 2000s, changes in migration trends, the political debate on internal migration in Russia.
This is a collection of scientific papers on migration studies.
Young people are a vulnerable category of workers, finding themselves in a delicate phase of their working life: their first entry into the labour market. In many European countries, youngsters are unemployed or have difficulty finding and obtaining jobs. This situation has deteriorated particularly after the crises, recessions and stagnation that has impacted European economies in recent years. In addition to the cyclical or crisis impact, structural factors are also very important. Additionally, prolonged crises, as in some Eurozone countries, have transformed a significant part of cyclical unemployment in structural (long term) unemployment.
Young People and the Labour Market: A Comparative Perspective explores the condition of young people in the labour market. The authors present new evidence from several countries, with a special focus on Europe, and offer a comparative perspective. They investigate questions such as which structural conditions and labour market institutions guarantee better youth performance, which education systems and school-to-work processes are more effective and in which countries is gender differentiation less of an issue. All of the aforementioned, as well as many other comparisons which the authors make, are significant in helping to facilitate the successful design of labour and education policies.
As the first investigation by economists to explore the complexity of this topic, this book will be useful to both economists and sociologists who are interested in the role of young people in the labour market, and the problem of youth unemployment.
Youth unemployment is at present a crucial issue in the EU policy agenda, as well as in the agenda of other developed and developing countries. The economic crisis, which began in mid-2008, has had severe effects on EU and Eastern Europe labour markets and especially on young people. The key aim of this introductive chapter is to review and present the contributions included in the book, that is the upshot of the EU IRSES project “The political economy of youth unemployment”. It also summarizes the most relevant articles already published by the authors involved in the EU project.
Using two rounds of nationally representative household survey data in this study, we measure the impact on poverty in Nepal of local and international migration for work. We apply an instrumental variables approach to deal with nonrandom selection of migrants and simulate various scenarios for the different levels of migration comparing observed and counterfactual household expenditure distribution. Our results indicate that one-fifth of the poverty reduction in Nepal occurring between 1995 and 2004 can be attributed to higher levels of work-related migration and remittances sent home. We also show that while the increase in international work-related migration was the leading cause of this poverty reduction, domestic migration also played an important role. Our findings demonstrate that strategies for economic growth and poverty reduction in Nepal should consider aspects of the dynamics of domestic and international migration.
The paper gives the results of an empirical study evaluating the social efficiency of the international voluntary project dance4life in Russia, the objective of which is to prevent HIV infection and AIDS and to form healthy lifestyle among young people. Analyzing the implementation of the project has shown that the participation of young people in the project has a noticeable positive impact on their level of awareness, frustrates myths about HIV/AIDS, and develops their social and healthy lifestyle skills, on the one hand. On the other, their project involvement favors the increased voluntary activity and self-organization of young people participating in the project.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.