Подходы к введению эффективного контракта с педагогами в организациях среднего профессионального образования
The paper proposed approaches how to implement effective contract with teachers in vocational education and training organizations in modern conditions. It includes ideas how to distribute the incentive part of education organization’s budget and how to determine performance indicators. The article is based on the results of the analysis of normative-legal acts of the federal and regional governments and educational organizations, on the results of monitoring statistics, as well as on the results of interviews with heads of colleges and focus groups with teachers.
The article considers the practices of performance-based pay applied in the vocational education and training (VET) institutions. It was found that VET institutions used different tools to adopt «effective contract» due to ambiguity of the institutional environment. The study suggests, that more favorable conditions for performancebased pay occur in VET organizations, which have cooperation with business (employers for graduates) interested in skilled workers and in employment of the graduates. This is due to abilities of VET to attract additional funding from business, to develop quality assessment system and requirements for the results of teacher’s work.
This monograph aims at analyzing the minimum wage and 'effective contract' legislation in international context, taking into account both historical and modern peculiarities in general and with a particular emphasis on public service. This analysis being performed from a comparative viewpoint, allowed the authors to assess the legislative amendments suggested by the legislator against the labour legislation currently in force. It has also helped to throw light onto the gaps and conflicts in the minimum wage and 'effective contract' regulation and common errors in its enforcement. The authors formulated their own suggestions concerning further legislation development in this field. This monograph was prepared with information support of the "ConsultantPlus" electronic legal database system.
The article presents the current practices of system of remuneration for university teaching staff in higher educational institutions in Russia. The research was based on 51 in-depth interviews in the 6 universities and included the analysis of 100 universities’ local acts of the wage system. The main question of the article is: what are the differences in the remuneration systems in the 6 higher education institutions and why these differences occur. We claim that the universities’ remuneration systems are formed under the impact of 4 factors: 1) external formal accountability to the federal and regional governments; 2) strategic goals of the university (which are often formed as a university response to external accountability); 3) the financial resources of the university; 4) its internal features: the number of university teaching staff, centralized or decentralized management, the number of departments of the university and its’ profiles.
The goal of our study was to compare the working conditions, salary size, and professional outcomes of teachers at schools that switched to the competitive performance-based (so-called ‘effective’) contract in comparison with teachers at schools that did not switch to this employment framework. The study focused on teachers at 83 vocational secondary schools (VSS) that are subordinate to the Ministry of Education of Moscow Region. We conducted an opinion poll to obtain direct information from teachers. We sent questionnaires consisting of 31 questions to 253 teachers. Of the respondents, 105 were included in the experimental group and 148 were placed in the control group. The results of our study show that teachers who work in organizations that have switched to the effective contract model have a higher subjective assessment of their own financial situation, greater expectations regarding their future income, greater confidence about the compensation plan, and a better opinion of the prestige of the teaching profession than teachers at schools that have not adopted an effective contract. The only parameter that cannot be interpreted as an unambiguously positive result is an increase in the frequency of teacher performance assessments at schools that have adopted an effective contract. It was also possible to establish the existence of a moderate relationship between the individual nature of the employment contract and the level of trust that teachers have in their compensation plan. In addition, we established another moderate relationship between informedness and the level of trust that teachers place in their compensation plan. Thus, we can recommend implementing the performance-based contract model at all VSS in the Moscow Region, because it has a positive impact on the immaterial motivation and financial position of teachers. By conducting additional measures to increase teachers’ informedness about effective contracts, we can increase their level of trust in them.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.