Ответственность банков за поставку товаров, приобретаемых с использованием карт международных платежных систем, через процедуру чарджбек
In this article, I research chargeback as a concept of mandatory civil liability of banks and other financial institutions for delivery supplied by their clients. In particular, in case the purchase of goods or services with the use of services of financial organisations, the latter are responsible for delivery of booked goods or services, their relevant obligations are based on international payment systems imperative rules. Chargebacks only partially regulated by the national Russian legislation, however, can be applied according to the rules of international payment systems on a larger scale for cards payments in Russia and as well as for payments outside Russia by bank cards issued by the Russian banks.
The paper analyses the dynamics of the incidence of payment for medical services in different social groups, as well as the dynamics of health care expenditure burden on budgets of households with different income levels. Throughout the 2000s, more solvent population is increasingly applying for paid medical services, preferring to pay for the treatment officially. Poor patients and less developed areas residents often resort to the forms of payment associated with a greater risk of catastrophic expenditure: to informal payments, as opposed to the official, to direct payment, as opposed to voluntary health insurance.
The paper analyses dynamic of out-of-pocket payment for medical services, its burden on household’s budgets, and demonstrates the differences in these indicators for different age, income, and regional groups of population. The existence of two models of payments is demonstrated. More solvent patients and residents of more developed regions prefer to pay for the treatment officially and to visit private clinics, while patients with low income and residents of poor regions often resort to informal payments.
We consider a new jurisprudence of the Supreme Court of Ukraine on the following issues: - distinction of financial and non-financial services - A unilateral change of the credit contract by the credit institution - the jurisdiction of the courts of arbitration -dispute about the fact of conclusion of the deposit agreement -common-law marriage impact for a mortgage -competition of claims in case improper disposal of collateral - a right of minors for housing - deposit secured loans - a double civil liability for one violation of the credit agreement
The author touches upon questions of correspondence between the Civil Code of the Russian Federation rules in their amended edition and the Federal Law of 26 October 2002 # 127-FZ “On Insolvency (Bankruptcy)”. Such issues as the order of a insolvency administrator’s appointment in the procedures of compulsory corporate liquidation and reorganization, establishing creditors’ claims based on subscription agreements, the effect of a court bail in bankruptcy are considered in the article.
This chapter is devoted to the analysis of the impact of the global financial crisis on the nascent housing market in Russia, which started developing less than 10 years ago. At the same time we make an attempt to estimate whether there were "bubbles" in this market. This chapter has the following structure.
It starts with an overview of the housing sector in Russia before the meltdown and analysis of the evolution of housing property rights. Next we look at both the supply side (housing stock and new construction) and the demand side of the situation in housing market before 2009. The section ends with a summary description of the situation in housing mortgage finance and affordability of housing, which is a big challenge for a developing housing market.
The second section analyzes the impact of the global financial crisis on the mortgage sector in Russia and highlights new trends in the housing sector. We focus on government anti-crisis measures in the housing market and the role of government-sponsored organizations. Two main areas of government intervention in the housing and mortgage markets are analyzed: state support of mortgage borrowers and the housing construction industry.
Next we raise the issue of the presence of housing bubble in Russia and analyze main determinants of housing price trends and their impact on housing market.
The chapter concludes with an outline of the housing and housing mortgage markets in Russia.
The article has been examining the ways of transformation of mortgage borrowers' everyday life as well as peculiarities of decision making under uncertainty and high risks closely related to house building and purchase dwelling. Our research is carrying out in Irkutsk since 2007. It shows that mortgage is not only "a school of financial competence". Mortgage is a mechanism of new responsibility's rising (through the person's internal motivation) and new social competence (through the recourse mobilization - personal and person's social network, self-organization and using new social practices). Thus mortgage is "a school of middle class".
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/