Два дневника монахини Абуцу (1221?-1283): литература, биография, личность
The article is devoted to the diaries of the nun Abutsu “Utataneno Ki” and “Izayoi Nikki”. Abutsu began her career, like most young women of her circle, as a court lady in the service of Princess Ankamonin. As fate would have it at the age of thirty Abutsu met Fujiwara no Tameie, a descendant of the great dynasty of poets. Abutsu influenced the life of the Mikohidari poetic house, apparently playing her part in splitting the family into three branches. Abutsu had to fight for the right of her children to inherit not only the rich estate of Hosokawa, but also for the transfer to them of the entire library, what opened up tremendous career opportunities for the court poet. Being practically the only sources of the biography of Abutsu, diaries provide valuable information about the young and old years of the writer. However, we are dealing with a fiction that is at the same time very personal for the author. So, “Utatane” is a diary of yet a very young Abutsu, who was fascinated by “Genji-monogatari” being clearly under its influence. While “Izayoi nikki” is completely different, there is an obvious political and personal background that Abutsu kept in mind when writing a diary. Abutsu is positioning herself as a strong personality: a devoted wife, mourning her husband, an outcasted mother, ready to go on a difficult journey and, finally, a talented poet who can convey sacred knowledge about poetry to her descendants.
The article discusses research perspectives in the study of Russian pre-modern first-person writings that are commonly called autobiographies. Its first part starts with definitions of what is “early Russian” and “autobiographical,” briefly introduces six texts, gives a condensed review of the approaches to the study of these texts by literary and cultural historians from 1950s to present, and concludes with suggestion of some new perspectives to their analysis. The article argues that re-questioning of early Russian autobiographical writings is prompted by some recent important changes in the humanities and social sciences and by some insights from historians and literary scholars that study first-person texts of the Western tradition. The second part of the article is a case-study that examines one autobiographical text, The Life (Zhitie) of monk Epifanii (? – 1682) and focuses on one topic: representation of the hero/author’s pain and healing. The analysis of this representation is conducted in relation to concrete social and political contexts of the text. The study concludes that contextualizing pre-modern first-person narratives as social activities embedded in historically specific reality helps in better understanding of their meanings.
The present research focuses on the autobiographical writings of two outstanding political figures, the former presidents of South Korea, Kim Dae-jung (1998-2003) and Roh Moo-hyun (2003-2008). The study aims to define how individual memories of the past are interwoven with collective memories and how these memories are reflected in life narratives. The preliminary results of the research show that the individual memories of two politicians regarding significant historical events considerably contest and criticize the official historical discourse. Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun have used different forms of autobiographical writing, autobiography and memoir, to record their private recollections, which are testimonies of the authors’ past experiences. In this regard, they are especially helpful resources for understanding how collective memory of the past has been formed and mobilized in South Korea.
The article focuses on the most famous Russian pre-modern autobiography The Life by protopope Avvakum (1621/22–1682) to discuss his wife Natas’ja Markovna as one of its essential characters. Being the leader of the movement against religious reform in the seventeenth century Russia, Avvakum composed his life story in accordance with hagiographical canon of the martyr to send a propaganda message to his followers. The figure of Natas’ja Markovna in his text also works for this aim. In accordance with women’s hagiographic canon she is portrayed as wife and mother completely subjected to her husband’s will and doomed to share all hardships of his life. Though Avvakum’s autobiography was widely read, this religious/social context was often understood as insignificant for understanding its meanings. The same is true for the figure of the protopopica, which was used by Russian scholars and writers of the twentieth century to establish a canon of the model wife.
Like many genres, biography came belatedly to Russia. As with other such late arrivals, it underwent intensive growth in quantity, sophistication, cultural significance and popularity from the era of Nicholas I onwards, and stands today as a dominant force in post-Soviet publishing. Yet studies of Russian biography’s poetics and its role as a literary and cultural institution in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries remain thin on the ground, a fact often lamented, yet not fully addressed, in the scattered writings on the subject.
Writing Russian Lives examines modern Russian biography as a literary form, a publishing phenomenon and a cultural force. From Imperial to pre- Revolutionary and early Soviet biography and memoir writing, the volume also explores the history of the long-running ‘Lives of Remarkable People’ series, whilst consideration of survivors’ testimonies from Nazi-occupied Russia and the problems of presenting personality in the late Soviet era offer innovative research and insight into less traditional forms of the genre.
The article analyzes how modernism is represented in two Wyndham Lewis’s autobiographies, «Blasting and Bombardiering» (1937) and «Rude Assignment» (1950). The author’s reflection on modernism is considered within the context of his critical attitude towards the autobiographical in modernist novel and taking into account the changes in his autobiographical intentions from one book to the other. The article concludes that in Lewis’s far from experimental use of autobiography the latter acts as a means of definition, popularization and justification of his conception of modernism considered to be, just as his autobiographies, an act of detachment rather than exploration of subjectivity.
This article discusses the legend of Saint Alexius from the perspective of the “discovery of the individual,” an issue that for many decades has been intensively debated by historians of European culture.
The article describes the structures of autobiographical narration in the novels and essays of the austrian writer E. Canetti.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.