Иран: перспектива торгового сотрудничества со странами ЕАЭС
The use of economic sanctions by the "liberal Leviathan" is neither a punishment no an attempt to answer the threats to national security. This is the first step of the western strategy of management of the anarchic world by new rules. The article examines the complex nature of sanctions as an instrument of political and economic influence on international relations in the modern world, the existing approaches to the determination of sanctions, their nature and potential impact on the balance of power in the global political system.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the current state of the oil and gas industry of Russia in the conditions of falling oil prices and sanctions policy as well as the forecast of the further development of the industry and search for the ways out. The research methodology is based on a systematic approach to assessing the state of the oil and gas industry of Russia. It uses a set of scientific and special methods of investigation including the abstract-logical method, balancing method, economics and statistics and comparative analysis, synthesis method and others. The article demonstrates that the sanctions imposed on Russian companies as well as unprecedentedly low oil prices in the short term did not have a major impact on the production stability of the Russian oil and gas sector. The reason is that Russia has a huge resource potential and Russian oil projects are profitableeven at low oil prices. However, in the long term, these factors can have a negative impact on the industry, which is due primarily to the shortage of modern equipment and technologies for the implementation of promising projects in the Arctic shelf, as well as on deposits with difficult development conditions. The sanctions policy is not favourable for foreign companies because the long-term interests of our companies coincide with the interests of foreign business partners. The international coordination of efforts for solving many problems is needed, because of decreasing resources and infavourable oil production settings. The article shows that a major investment in the development of modern domestic equipment and technologies are required in the current situation; it is advisable to develop the residual reserves and reserves difficult to recover in the aged areas along with the implementation of large-scale projects for the production of hydrocarbons in new areas.
This book offers insight into ideational motives behind Tehran’s behaviour on the international arena, considering its twin desires to protect Iran’s national interests, and to project raw power. This can then be used to understand the current foreign policy of Iran in the region and generate informed prognosis about Tehran’s diplomatic moves in the future. Given the ongoing instability in the Middle East and Iran’s growing importance as a regional power, it is vital to determine the areas where it actions may threaten the economic, security, and political interests of the international community. At the same time it is also important to identify cases where Tehran could be a team player. This may offer chances to build more constructive relations with Iran in the longer term.
The essay examines the qualitative changes in EU–Russian relations which resulted from the 2014 sanctions. Thematic, structural and institutional aspects of the issue are analysed through the ‘level of analysis’ approach. Thematically, policy-specific and implementation measures reinforced an EU–Russian ‘divorce’ both in energy and trade. Structurally, the scope of EU–Russian dialogue narrowed in favour of relations between Moscow and member states, and in multilateral fora; this dialogue also became dependent on Russia–US relations. Institutionally sanctions have led to the growing poverty of transgovernmental and transnational relations. As a result, achievements of previous years have been derailed, and reversal of the negative trends will prove difficult.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.