Thermal desorption combined with atmospheric pressure photo ionization for the analysis of volatile compounds and its possible applications
We report an approach to study volatile organic compounds based on thermal desorption combined with atmospheric pressure photo ionization. The approach allows the sequential evaporation of different fractions of the sample, which simplifies the mass spectrum. We have applied the developed method for the detection of petroleum in vegetable oil. We have shown that in the negative mode, ions of fatty acids corresponding to vegetable oil dominates, while in the positive mode under relatively low temperature the light fraction of petroleum rapidly evaporates making it easy detectable.
In this paper we consider the problem of designing a database information system, and also describes methods of modeling used in the process of creating the database. Based on the results to create a tool that is used in the field of ensuring the reliability of systems.
The conference held on the 7th of April, 2016 at St. Petersburg State University of Economics is dedicated to the 10th Anniversary of the Master Programn "Economy of Enterprise, Quality and Innovation" and reflects the decade' journey of complicated process of buiding the strong professional, cultural and personal relationship between Russian and Italian universities.
The report and communications made by participants concern the contribution of the both sides in the successful development of Russian Italian strategic collaboration that is of great important in the era of the information society and economy of knowledge. The material will be helpful for international companies and organizations in the process of launching any join project, for business consultants and experts skilled in the field of strategic cooperation development, representatives of local authorities in the external relations and foreign affairs.
In the article we consider the approaches of the increase of competitiveness of the Russian Railways on the basis of effective interaction between logistics and marketing in the new integrated transport products and establishing a reasonable pricing system (on the example of a direct railway-ferry communication in complex logistics services of the Russian Railways).
Book Review: Beckert J., Musselin Ch. (eds) (2013) Constructing Quality. The Classification of Goods in Markets, New York: Oxford University Press. 342 p.
This review discusses the collection of articles edited by J. Beckert and C. Musselin, Constructing Quality: The Classification of Goods in Markets. The collection is focused on the processes of social construction of criteria for the quality of market goods in modern consumer markets. It is intended to contribute to the body of literature on the mechanisms for evaluation, classification, and commensuration, a request for which surfaces in a whole variety of social areas in a modern society (characterized by the rise of calculation and managerialism). This review covers both the main problems emerging in this thematic field and the answers suggested by the authors of the articles in this volume. Thus, the reader is encouraged to think about the ways in which social values are translated into market categories, which actors contribute to this process, which tools are used for consolidating the criteria of quality, where the conditions of confidence in these criteria are hidden, why there may be discrepancies and how they can be overcome, as well as a number of other issues. The common theme of the volume and the review is the idea that the quality of market goods is a relatively fluid polyvalent category, and interpretations of this term are often diverse depending on the type of good, the degree of its social entanglement, the institutional and socio-cultural environment of the market, as well as value-oriented attitudes and the structural positions of the subjects who must make judgments and evaluations of the market commodity. The problem of the quality of market goods is interesting for sociologists not as a practical problem, but as another angle which makes it possible to see the mechanics of the social order of the market in action. The market consensus concerning the quality of the goods exchanged for money conceals both the observance of the typical social norms of the given historical period and the adherence to the principle of parity of the parties, that is, the mutual recognition of the fairness of market transaction by the buyer and the seller. Thus, an issue which seemed secondary, how the social attitudes are formed with respect to the quality standards of market goods, has instead a central place among the dilemmas of how modern consumer markets function and reproduce.
We investigate the vertical differentiation model in the insurance market taking into account fixed costs (the costs of quality improvement) of different structure. The subgame perfect equilibrium in a two-stage game is constructed for the case of compulsory insurance when firms use Bertrand-Nash or Stakelberg equilibria at the stage of price competition. For the case of optional insurance we explore and compare the firms optimal behavior in monopoly and duopoly settings.
The paper deals with the creation of a database of indicators of reliability and durability of the ESI, formulated the requirements for the database, and it seems possible the database model
Book Review: Karpik L. (2010) Valuing the Unique: The Economics of Singularities, Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press (primum editae: Karpik L. (2007) L’économie des singularités, Paris: Gallimard).
Choosing a good novel, a fancy restaurant, artwork, or a qualified specialist practitioner cannot be understood with the help of theories of exchange mechanisms offered by economics. Lucien Karpik suggests the concept of “singularity” for analyzing consumer choice of high-quality unique goods. The main attributes of “singularities” include multidimensionality, uncertainty, and incommensurability. The important traits of markets for singularities include opacity and opportunism, the necessity for coordination mechanisms, the dominance of quality competition over price competition, and the impossibility to explain price setting with the supply-demand equilibrium. Markets for singularities contain judgment devices (e.g. guides, expert reviews, laureate lists) which help consumers to make a choice. These devices are used in order to reduce uncertainty, providing consumers with necessary knowledge. These devices include networks, certificates of quality, expert systems, ratings (composed by experts or developed by the market), techniques of consumer manipulation and forms of product demonstration at points of sales. Markets for singularities are governed on the basis of several coordination regimes. Thus, the “regime of authenticity” can be found within markets of expensive wine based on guarantees of quality. “Mega-regime” refers to situations where brand names signal a certain quality, such as global movie producers, luxury apparel manufactures, and so on. The “regime of expert opinion” exists within constrained markets, including books, movies, theatre performances, etc. The “regime of professional coordination” is applied to markets of personal services such as physicians or architects, where service suppliers are governed by professional ethics and associations. Prices for singularities are not determined by the standard equilibrium mechanism of supply and demand, but instead are set based on restraints of volume production. A market for a singularity also implies great discrepancies in prices for top-tier products by ratings versus goods produced for mass consumption.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.