Государственная политика активного долголетия: о чем свидетельствует мировой опыт
Modern world is ageing, and Russia is not an exception. Most governments of the ageing societies aim their social policies at healthy and active ageing of their populations. Many special international documents on these issues were adopted, a number of countries have today separate governmental bodies responsible for policies towards older people. States develop national strategies, support private initiatives and NGO working with elders. In Russia, public policy aimed at active ageing still lacks clear goals and structure. This paper analyses international experience of active ageing policies. Using existing efficiency estimates, we reveal those policy measures that have proved to be most effective and could be applied in our country. In our review we pay special attention at the countries-leaders of the world ratings of older people life quality. During many years those states have been applying different instruments of social policies towards seniors at the country level, as well as at the regional and local levels. They intentionally monitor all the programmes applied and evaluate the mechanisms in use. According to the concept of active ageing suggested by the World Health Organization, we analyse the main components of active ageing such as physical, social and labour activities. The analysis of international practices let us reveal the most efficient instruments of active ageing policy (financial, educational, organizational, informational instruments). In conclusion, we give recommendations for national policy of active ageing to be applied in Russia.