Conditional Regard, Self-concept, and Relational Authenticity: Revisiting some key Rogerian Concepts Crossculturally, through Multilevel Modeling
The present cross-cultural study utilized contemporary statistical techniques to explore the associations among conditional regard, ideal and actual self-concept, and relational authenticity, constructs with deep roots in the Rogerian and humanistic traditions. In three countries (China, Russia, and the United States) the experience of conditional regard in past and present relationships predicted larger discrepancies between ideal and actual self-concept, and lower feelings of authenticity within relationships. Implications for the study of self-concept and the development of self, as well as for practice, are discussed.
The chapter, based on the field research among week-end pilgrims, argues that the overage Orthodox believer in contemporary Russia in not a churchgoer and arrangers her religious life outside the church. Instead of acquiring religious knowledge and language under the supervision of the church, the new believers have created their own mode of religiosity by drawing upon their previous experiences (such as heritage tourism) and beliefs (such as bio-energy healing etc). The research shows that a longing for authenticity has been a central part of the construction of new identities in Russia, and this process has been expressed in the language of Orthodox Christian tradition, as people know this language in their post-Soviet present.
The study investigated interrelationships among trait authenticity, context-specific authenticity,
and well-being in three samples drawn from England, the United States, and Russia. Six hundred and
twenty-eight adults participated: 196 from the United States, 240 from England, and 192 from Russia.
The overall sample consisted of 151 men and 477 women with a mean age of 27 years (range
= 18 to 56). Authenticity was rated both as a general trait and specific to four contexts: with
partner, parents, friends, and work colleagues. Well-being was measured using a measure of positive
mental health. English and American samples showed higher mean authenticity levels than
the Russian sample. In all three subsamples, within-subjects differences in the context-specific
ratings were in the same ordinal series; authenticity was rated highest with partner, followed by
friends and parents, and lowest with work colleagues. Context and country showed an interaction
in their effect on authenticity; United States and England were higher than Russia in partner,
friend, and parent contexts but not in the work context. Trait and context-specific authenticity
measures contributed unique and significant variance to a prediction of well-being in all three
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.