Системные ошибки в нестандартных текстах: кто пришли — мн. ч. предиката при подлежащем «кто»
The correct (prescriptive) or incorrect usage of grammatical constructions is regulated
by the tradition of codification. The standardizing practice is based on the analysis
of reference texts and the logic of the language’s grammatical system. Therefore,
the same phenomena can be interpreted as corresponding to or deviating from the
norm, depending on the corpus of sources taken as the basis of a normative description.
The article uses the data from the Russian Learner Corpus, the Russian National
Corpus and the Internet to analyze the cases of plural predicates with the subject kto —
ranging between those accepted by recommendation norm (apart from its most rigorous
version represented in school practice) and peripheral ones, typical of everyday
and colloquial speech.
Grammatical, semantic and pragmatic reasons for the predicate coordination in the
plural have been discovered. Among the factors defining the choice of plural predicates
are the supporting components in the context of the plural form (determinative t’e;
quantifier vs’e; the predicate of the main clause or of the independent statement in the
pretext — in echo-questions or parallel constructions; the predicate of the subordinate
clause, depending on the relative construction kto prishl’i; the supporting name or substantive
at the top or in the nearest context, including the position beyond the limits of the
statement); the semantics of multiple subject of action; the semantics of the predicate (not
presuming taking actions alone); the type of grammar construction, including the model
under consideration (e.g. kto, kak n’e tur’isty, znayut or on’i kto uyehal’i, a kto ostal’is’).