Автономизмус, социализмус и идиотизмус: европеизмы в иврите, 1917—1918.
Conceptualisation of Hebrew language history at the turn of 19th—20th centuries poses a curious and problematic case for sociolinguistics. Modern theories on this subject, often contradicting one another, have one assumption in common: Hebrew underwent crucial linguistic changes in Palestine during the period. The Hebrew language modernization usually referred to as Hebrew «revival» faced inter alia a challenge to expand Hebrew vocabulary.
The article at hand presents an analysis of European loanwords (500 lexemes), found in a daily Hebrew newspaper, published in Moscow in 1917—1918. Orthographic, morphological and grammar adaptation of the loanwords, as well as functional groups of borrowings, are examined, building on the data of Hebrew newspapers of the previous period (the second half of the 19th century). The analysis shows that basic models of loanword adaptation, which are still actual in Modern Hebrew, were elaborated in the early 20th century far away from Palestine, i.e. both from activity of Ben-Yehuda and from first generations of Hebrew speakers, thus our general interpretations of Hebrew history remain open to question.
The article focuses on the use of derivatives formed from the word νόμος (law) with the help of α- privativum in the Greek translation of the Bible (the Septuagint). Derivatives from the base ἀνομ- are used to translate various Hebrew words, most of which have no "legalistic" connotations in Hebrew. The article sets out a statistical analysis of the usage of these derivatives in the Septuagint and shows that in the Psalms (translated into Greek in the 2nd century BCE) the tendency towards their usage is growing in comparison with the Pentateuch – the first body of the biblical books that was translated into Greek, as early as the beginning of the 3rd century BCE. Perhaps this tendency reflects a certain development in the culture and identity of the Judeo-Hellenistic communities.
Yiddish-speaking groups of Communists played a visible role in many countries, most notably in the Soviet Union, United States, Poland, France, Canada, Argentina and Uruguay. The sacrificial role of the Red Army, and the Soviet Union as a whole, reinforced the Left movement in the post-Holocaust Jewish world. Apart from card-careering devotees, such groups attracted numerous sympathisers, including the artist Marc Chagall and the writer Sholem Asch. But the suppression of Yiddish culture in the Soviet Union radically changed the climate in Jewish left-wing circles. Former Communists and sympathisers turned away, while the attention of Yiddish commentators in the West turned to the conditions for Jewish cultural and religious life in the Soviet Union and Poland, Jewish emigration and the situation in the Middle East. Ideological confrontations between Communist Yiddish literati in the Soviet Union, United States, Canada, Poland, France and Israel are in the centre of Gennady Estraikhs pioneering study, Yiddish in the Cold War. This ground-breaking book recreates the intellectual environments of the Moscow literary journal Sovetish Heymland (the author was its managing editor in 1988-91), the New York newspaper Morgn-Frayhayt and the Warsaw newspaper Folks-Shtime.
In the present article two eleventh-century phrases inscribed many times on the walls of the St Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (коуни рони and парехъ мари) are shown to be of Semitic provenance. The authors provide the linguistic arguments which support the claim of a Hebrew source for коуни рони and a Syriac one for парехъ мари. In addition, we offer a reconstruction of the historical pragmatic context in which the phrases can be situated. It is proposed that the коуни рони inscriptions can be connected with the seizure of Novgorod and the plundering of St Sophia by Vseslav of Polotsk in the year 1066. They should be regarded as the oldest tangible proof of contacts with Jews and Hebrew in Rus’. In the case of the парехъ мари inscriptions, the hypothesis is put forward that the author was a certain Efrem, a local citizen, possibly a clergyman, who was a Syrian by descent.
This paper investigates the language situation in Moscow schools with an ethnocultural component – a new form of national schools. The analysis is based on interviews which were recorded in 2007, in two Moscow schools, one of them with Armenian ethno-cultural component, and the other, with Azeri. The sample included ten students from each school (five boys and five girls).
In the paper the process of linguistic integration of Azeri and Armenian children into modern Russian society is analyzed. The comparison between these two groups is particularly appealing, because the effects of Soviet Russification, and the language situations in general, were different in Armenia and in Azerbaijan. I show that this difference influences the use of language by Azeri and Armenian children.
The problem of morphological ambiguity is widely addressed in the modern NLP. Mostly ambiguity is resolved with the use of large manually-annotated corpora and machine learning. However, such methods are not always available, as good training data is not accessible for all languages. In this paper we present a method of disambiguation without gold standard corpora using several statistical models, namely, Brill algorithm (Brill 1995) and unambiguous n-grams from the automatically annotated corpus. All the methods were tested on the Corpus of Modern Greek and on the Corpus of Modern Yiddish. As a result, more than a half of words with ambiguous analyses were disambiguated in both corpora, demonstrating high precision (>80%). Our method of morphological disambiguation demonstrates that it is possible to eliminate some of the ambiguous analyses in the corpus without specific linguistic resources, only with the use of raw data, where all possible morphological analyses for every word are indicated.
This paper examines the problematic concept of dead language as exemplified by the Hebrew language. The first section presents a brief history of the concept of dead language in European linguistic thought. Originating in Italy of the 15th century, the term became common in European linguistic writings during the 16th to 18th centuries as an epithet for Latin, Ancient Greek and Hebrew. During the Haskala (Jewish Enlightenment) in the 19th century it was adopted by Jewish intellectuals and was current in linguistic controversies throughout the 20th century. Sections 2 and 3 show the key role the label dead as applied to Hebrew played in wide-spread polemics on Jewish language choice in Russia during the first quarter of the 20th century (§ 2) and in the discourse about a Hebrew “revival” in Palestine at the same period (§ 3). Later works on the history of Hebrew published in the 19th and 20th centuries proposed novel conceptualizations but nevertheless followed the idea of the “deadness” of the Hebrew language of previous periods, discussed in § 4. Examples of Hebrew usage which contradict Hebrew’s functioning exclusively as a language of religion and high-level writings are provided in § 5. The last section is a humble attempt to outline a possible direction for a description of Hebrew language history, avoiding the problematic term dead language and other related terms.
The issues connected with gastronomic culture have become increasingly topical throughout the last two decades. Food, meals, bodily and communicative gastronomic practices reflect dramatic changes of culture. Food is one of the most important and suggestive markers of everyday practices which signify the patterns and the intensity of globalisation. Russian gastronomic culture has always developed in a very specific way with the import of foreign culinary traditions being the main trend of this process. The alien traditions have been adopted first by the elite circles, then by the lower strata of the Russian population to finally become an authentic part of Russian culture. Borrowing foreign gastronomic vocabulary was the hallmark of such assimilation. Although unified fast food still remains the mainstream of the modern gastronomic culture, it is being challenged by a new tendency. The diversity of culinary traditions of different cultures in the globalized world offers an opportunity of forming a bodily identity by choosing one of the exported types of cuisines even at the level of so called Mac-variant. Today, the modern Russian food discourse reflects the process of globalization and macdonaldalisation of the domestic gastronomic culture. The major marker of the latest linguistic changes is the extension of food nominatives as the consequence of the adoption of new foreign nominatives, which denote new gastronomic practices and habits. Such words as “smoothie”, “fresh”, “sushi”, “macchiato” have become an integral part of the active gastronomic vocabulary of Russians. Gastronomic loanwords demonstrate a new crucial tendency in the modern Russian language: the substitution of the native gastronomic thesaurus with a new one of the foreign origin.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.