Проблемы статистического учета в сфере инноваций: анализ современного состояния и перспектив развития
The publication is devoted to statistical measurement of engineering services and industrial design in Russia. It includes the Concept of monitoring engineering and industrial design markets (with recommendations on classification of the relevant economic activities), the questionnaire and the system of statistical indicators.
The article describes mathematical analysis methods of distributions in multidimensional space of subject’s characteristics in social sciences. The necessity is motivated to take into account measure (frequency) and metric. Methods of metric reliability analysis for the general population are considered using (e, d)-sets (Shannon). As an example UN Human Development Data are analyzed.
The article outlines the definition of the concept of Big Data, presents its applicability for official statistics, and reviews problems and challenges associated with it. The paper introduces international experience in carrying out Big Data projects in statistics, as well as prospects of using this concept in the Russian statistics. The authors give consecutive account of interdependence between Big Data and official statistics, which perfectly coincides with fundamental principles of official statistics adopted at the 68th General Assembly of the United Nations on January 23, 2014. There is an analysis of monitoring results conducted by the Statistics Division and Economic Commission for Europe which resulted in gathered information on completed, on-going and potential Big Data projects (as well as organizational conditions for their execution) in selected countries. The authors comment on challenges and problems which have to be overcome in order to use Big Data in official statistics; they specify implementation directions for the concept of Big Data not only to substitute the existing statistical observation practice, but also to use it as an additional source of statistical information and a way to check validity of the obtained results
This article is focused on development trends analysis of international and Russian statistical standards and methodological approaches to organization of surveys on the use of ICT in households and by population. Research trends for the new specialized sample survey of population on the use of ICT are suggested.
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.