Близкие духом: динамика ценностей в Беларуси и соседних странах, 1990-2012
Values are long-term orientation goals that guide behaviour and change gradually over the life course. Belarus, like its neighbouring countries, has lived through post-communist transformations that entailed deep value change that many believed to be linked with modernization. This paper applies R. Inglehart’s revised theory of modernization in the comparative analysis of preferences for social development and values in upbringing over the 1990-2012 survey data of the WVS and EVS. Belarus is compared to Russia and Kazakhstan, the Eurasian neighbours, on the one hand, and with Poland and Ukraine, eastern European neighbours, on the other. Results demonstrate that in many respects the preferred values of social development and upbringing have shown similar trends over two decades, with the priority of materialist needs in social development but also rising importance of independence and responsibility as children’s qualities. At the same time, Belarus’s position between the countries compared is too ambivalent to conclude that it is closer in values either to one or the other neighbourhood at the moment.
This chapter proposes an unfolding view of the EU as a sort of post-modern neo-medieval empire, in which narratives of othering towards Central and Eastern Europe preserve their salience.
This paper examines correlations between the genetic characteristics of human populations and their aggregate levels of tolerance and happiness. A metadata analysis of genetic polymorphisms supports the interpretation that a major cause of the systematic clustering of genetic characteristics may be climatic conditions linked with relatively high or low levels of parasite vulnerability. This led vulnerable populations to develop gene pools conducive to avoidance of strangers, while less-vulnerable populations developed gene pools linked with lower levels of avoidance. This, in turn, helped shape distinctive cultures and subsequent economic development. Survey evidence from 48 countries included in the World Values Survey suggests that a combination of cultural, economic and genetic factors has made some societies more tolerant of outsiders and more predisposed to accept gender equality than others. These relatively tolerant societies also tend to be happier, partly because tolerance creates a less stressful social environment. Though economic development tends to make all societies more tolerant and open to gender equality and even somewhat happier, these findings suggest that cross-national differences in how readily these changes are accepted, may reflect genetically-linked cultural differences.
This volume consists of articles prepared after two conferences organized by the European Humanities University in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2011 and in 2012. The focus of both conferences was concentrated on the development of reforms and changes in higher education in the social sciences and humanities in Eastern Europe during the last two decades. The collapse of the communist system in Eastern Europe was followed by the enormous expansion of institutions of higher learning, especially in the field of social sciences and humanities. While responding to the great need of society for the education of urgently needed specialists in this area, most of the old and the newly established universities were confronted with a lack of professionals in this field. As a consequence, the overproduction of alleged specialists especially in subjects like law, business, management, and economics, has contributed to discrediting not only knowledge in these field, but also the value of education, consequently putting at risk the processes of transformation of post-totalitarian reality. The book addresses itself to the issues of possible steps of reforming the educational and institutional space in the Eastern European Universities.
This volume intends to fill the gap in the range of publications about the post-transition social housing policy developments in Central and Eastern Europe by delivering critical evaluations about the past two decades of developments in selected countries’ social housing sectors, and showing what conditions have decisively impacted these processes.
Contributors depict the different paths the countries have taken by reviewing the policy changes, the conditions institutions work within, and the solutions that were selected to answer the housing needs of vulnerable households. They discuss whether the differences among the countries have emerged due to the time lag caused by belated reforms in selected countries, or whether any of the disparities can be attributed to differences inherited from Soviet times. Since some of the countries have recently become member states of the European Union, the volume also explores whether there were any convergence trends in the policy approaches to social housing that can be attributed to the general changes brought about by the EU accession.
Author analyzes the advantages and shortages of Eurasian integration project with a view of Russia's perspective. For Russia it's a strong strategic and geopolitical choice that is necessare for future development.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.