Апробация методик диагностики локуса контроля причин болезни и лечения и самоэффективности в отношении лечения
Illness and treatment representation in the broad sense is considered as one of the key factors of self-regulation in the situation of the illness in psychosomatics and health psychology. This work is devoted to the application of locus of control constructs (internality / externality of attribution of events) and self-efficacy (confidence of the person in her ability to realize her plans) to health and illness. According to the results of the theoretical review, it is important to assess the locus of control and self-efficacy in the specific situation – like situation of illness and treatment. We assume that the structure of the locus of control can be distinguished to not only internal, external and impersonal locus of control – but also that the locus of control of illness reasons and of treatment have different functions. On the basis of these assumptions we developed illness- and treatment-related locus of control scale and treatment-related selfefficacy scale and validated them on a sample of 517 respondents. Consistency of scales in different samples was 0,63-0,82 (with the exception of external locus of control subscale for illness reasons, 0,53-0,58), test-retest reliability - 0,58-0,81. Factor analysis confirms the 6-factor structure of the illness- and treatment-related locus of control scale, and single-factor of treatment- related self-efficacy scale. Correlation with general locus of control questionnaire and general self-efficacy scale is in favor of their convergent validity. Typical profile of internal, external and impersonal locus of control regarding the illness reasons and treatment was revealed. Treatment self-efficacy is related to the majority of indicators of both physical and psychological subjective well-being, while external and impersonal LC regarding illness reasons and impersonal LC of treatment are associated with worse quality of life (in domains of health, emotions), and in some cases - with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The role of internal LC and external LC of treatment is less clear. The scales could be used in studies of the attribution of illness and treatment and confidence in the treatment.