Влияние кризиса на жизнь российского среднего класса
In the article (which is part of a block of two articles, the second of which will be published in the next issue of the journal) results of analysis of characteristics and dynamics of income and subjective stratification models of Russian society are presented, based on data from several nationwide surveys carried out in 1999-2016. It is shown that the current model of income stratification is characterized by the dominance of the middle strata and is adequately reflected in public consciousness, based on the self-assessment of the positions people hold in the society. Economic crisis that started in 2014 so far did not cause any serious changes in the income stratification model or the assessment of their positions in society by Russians.
As for the methodological results of the analysis, it is shown that the optimal methods for income stratification of Russian society should be found among the relative methods used in developed countries, but not among the absolute methods used in developing countries. In addition, given Russia's regional heterogeneity in terms of modernization progress, it is more expedient to use the aggregate model of income stratification constructed on the basis of pre-stratification of regional communities than models based on the average measures for the country as a whole for the analysis of the social structure.
The article focuses on the impact of financial crisis in Indonesia on the budget for public infrastructure, services, and transfers. The behavior response of the population to the crisis could mean future welfare costs of an economy. With this regard, multiple equilibria in the income or wealth dynamics at the household level has been suggested in such away that hysteresis can stem from a transient income. A counterfactual assessment of the local welfare impacts of the crisis, both in short and long-term is provided.
The article shows that household consumption and savings functions are non-linear. The consumption level is affected by institutional limitations, both from above and below. Adequate estimation of income distribution efficiency over certain directions is shown to be feasible through market mechanism. Uncertainty, multiplicity and variability of external environment parameters require expert agency assistance for household’s decision-making; economic decision realization presupposes specialized institutions. Optimization of household’s distribution decision requires sufficient level of appropriate market infrastructure development.
Projects and reforms targeting infrastructure services can affect consumer welfare through changes in the price, coverage, or quality of the services provided. The benefits of improved service quality—while significant—are often overlooked because they are difficult to quantify. This article reviews methods of evaluating the welfare implications of changes in the quality of infrastructure services within the broader theoretical perspective of welfare measurement. The study outlines the theoretical assumptions and data requirements involved, illustrating each method with examples that highlight common methodological features and differences. The article also presents the theoretical underpinnings and potential applications of a new approach to analysing the effects of interruptions in the supply of infrastructure services on household welfare.
This EUISS Report features contributions from a group of Russian authors with outstading expertise no important Russian domestic and foreign policy issues. They all contributed analytical papers to the Institute's "Russia Insights" series, which were published online during the weeks befor the parliamentary and presidential elections.
Does "empowerment" come hand-in-hand with higher economic welfare? In theory, higher income is likely to raise both power and welfare, but heterogeneity in other characteristics can either strengthen or weaken the relationship. Survey data on Russian adults indicate that higher individual and household incomes raise both self-rated power and economic welfare. The individual income effect is primarily direct, rather than through higher household income. There are diminishing returns to income, though income inequality emerges as only a minor factor reducing either aggregate power or welfare. At given income, the identified covariates have strikingly similar effects on power and economic welfare.Income
This chapter describes the changes in the social structure of Russian society since the 1980s to 2015
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.