Multiple Diffusion Models to Compare Saccadic and Manual Responses for Inhibition of Return
Cuing a location in space produces a short-lived advantage in time. This early advantage, however, switches to a reaction time and has been termed inhibition of return (IOR). IOR behaves differently for different response modalities, suggesting that it may not be a unified effect. Ion with random, continuous cue-target Euclidean distance and cue-target onset asynchrony. These data were then used to train multiple diffusion models of saccadic and manual reaction time for these cuing experiments. Diffusion models can generate accurate distributions of reaction time. If saccadic and attentional IOR are based on similar processes, then differences in distribution will be better explained by adjusting parameter values such as signal and noise. Although experimental data show differences in the timing of the IOR, modularity, best-fit models are shown to have similar model parameters for the gradient of IOR, suggesting similar mechanisms for saccadic and manual IOR.
Dendritic cells (DCs) vaccination is a promising way to contend cancer metastases especially in the case of immunogenic tumors. Unfortunately, it is only rarely possible to achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome in the majority of patients treated with a particular DC vaccine. Apparently, DC vaccination can be successful with certain combinations of features of the tumor and patients immune system that are not yet fully revealed. Difficulty in predicting the results of the therapy and high price of preparation of individual vaccines prevent wider use of DC vaccines in medical practice. Here we propose an approach aimed to uncover correlation between the effectiveness of specific DC vaccine types and personal characteristics of patients to increase efficiency of cancer treatment and reduce prices. To accomplish this, we suggest two-step analysis of published clinical trials results for DCs vaccines: first, the information extraction subsystem is trained, and, second, the extracted data is analyzed using JSM and AQ methodology.
Differences in the parameters of memory-guided saccades and saccades to visual stimuli were demonstrated. Increases in the latent periods of memory-guided saccades as compared with saccades to visual stimuli provided evidence of slowing of saccade programming based on the extraction of information from working memory. Differently directed lateral differences were seen in the latent periods and durations of saccades to visual targets and memory-guided saccades, reflecting the leading role of the left hemisphere in the programming of saccades to visual stimuli and the right hemisphere in the programming of memory- guided saccades. Comparison of parameters of the temporospatial dynamics of initiation potentials P-1 and N-1, which develop in the last 100 msec of the latent periods of saccades, suggest that there are different mechanisms for the final step of programming saccades to visual stimuli and memory-guided saccades. Decreases in the latent period of the P-1 and N-1 peak potentials before memory-guided saccades may be evidence showing acceleration of the initiation processes for memory-guided saccades as compared with visually evoked saccades. This provides grounds for suggesting that the slowing of the programming of memory-guided saccades occurs at steps preceding saccade initiation.
In this paper we observe the opportunity to offer new methods of solving NP-hard problems which frequently arise in the domain of information management, including design of database structures and big data processing. In our research we are focusing on the Maximum Clique Problem (MCP) and propose a new approach to solving that problem. The approach combines the artificial neuro-network paradigm and genetic programming. For boosting the convergence of the Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) we propose the genetic algorithm as the selection mechanism for terms of energy function. As a result, we demonstrate the proposed approach on experimental graphs and formulate two hypotheses for further research.
Collection contains plenary papers and speeches at the sessions of the conference. There are considered phenomenology, dynamics, mechanisms and patterns of social and psychological phenomena caused by the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games 2014 in Sochi, Russia.
The article analyzes norms of spousal and parental behavior represented in Russian family law and contrasts them with the meanings young people invest in partnership, matrimony, and parenthood. Federal legislation and interviews with young middle-class residents of Saint Petersburg serve to explore similarities and differences between official discourse and young people's everyday views of their obligations and freedoms. The article discusses the applicability of the concept of a second demographic transition to gender relations in Russia. The subjects of the Russian demographic shift are young adults who, official discourse notwithstanding, base their reproductive decisions on professional, social, and economic status rather than age.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.