Международная трансдисциплинарная конференция «Doing the Body in the 21st Century». Питтсбург, Университет Питтсбурга, 31 марта – 2 апреля 2016 г.
"Doing the Body in the 21st Century", Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Conference Overview
The paper presents analytical overview of methodological approaches in sociology of the body. Main principles of corporeal realism are stated. Corporeal realism provides opportunity of multidimensional analysis of embodiment and analytical solution for structure/agency dilemma. Account to the body as a source of social life, location for structural relationships and means of positioning individuals in society allows sociologists to overcome reductionist interpretations of embodiment and to proceed from theory to empiric researches.
How body and mind are interconnected within action? This paper examines this question from the phenomenological point of view. First, we will describe some basic phenomenological attitudes to externality and internality. These attitudes were formulated by the founder of the phenomenology Edmund Husserl. Second, we present Husserl’s ideas on the embodiment. Third, we examine the development of Husserl’s position by French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
The concept of cognitive complexity is developed in the article. The complexity of cognition involves the syncretic inner connection of the level of perception and the mental level (perceptual thinking), the logical and intuitive components, the analogue, continuous and digital, discrete ones as well as loops of feedback between a cognitive agent and a medium which it cognizes, the connection of cognition with action, of cognition with communication. The cognitive complexity is formed also by complexity of functioning of consciousness and of the intertwining of its levels. Mind is considered as a structure-process in the interdependence of its bodily and mental aspects: body is able to cognize; it is thinking one, whereas mind is moving one. Mind is a self-organizing system, and self-organization engenders the phenomena of emergence, unpredictability on the level of the whole. The concept of cognitive complexity is discussed in the context of the notions of complexity and nonlinearity of thinking as well as of nonlinearity of writing. It is argued that a “complex epistemology” (Edgar Morin) is necessary for comprehension of complexity of cognition and creativity
This volume publishes materials of the International Conference (Humboldt-Kolleg) “Contact zones of Europe from the 3rd mill. BC to the 1st mill. AD” which was held at the Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow from the 29th of September to the 2nd of October 2017, with the financial support of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Russian Science Foundation
The collection contains theses included in the program XVII Moscow International Telecommunication Conference of Young Scientists and Students " Youth and Science " conducted on the Internet in October-December 2013 on the site of MEPHI http://mn.mephi.ru/.
Conference topics cover a wide range of problems: nuclear physics and energy; automatics and electronics, micro-and nanoelectronics in nuclear instrumentation and nanotechnology industry, nuclear medicine and medical diagnostics, laser physics, ecology security, development of new materials, strategic information technology, cybernetics and security; innovative projects, economics and law; education methodology.
The book is suitable for young scientists, post-graduate students and students who are interested in topics presented scientific directions.
A woman’s body becomes a site of alarming attention and anxiety in modern Western culture. The preoccupation with the body seriously affects women’s psychological well-being and self-esteem, health and health related behaviours, relationships with others, and career. This article focuses onthe social influences on body perception and women’s individual lives. It reveals the complexity of a human body and women’s personal activity addressed to their bodies, and containsthe results of qualitative hermeneutical research of influential bodily sociocultural tendencies and women’s attitudes towards their bodies in modern Western culture.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.