Трансформация центральных мест Самары как показатель социальных изменений. Стимуляция или естественное развитие
The study, presented in the article is a part of the research project "Regional identity in terms of socio-economic changes (on the example of Nizhny Novgorod Region, 2002 - 2014 years)". It reveals the age aspects of participants’ subjective opinions towards problems of urban development. In this study, regional identity is presented as a social phenomenon with a complex structure that includes symbolic, political, economic, social, socio-psychological components. Social and socio-psychological components of regional identity are in the focus of the analysis. The sample of the study involved "provincial" cities residents – citizens of regional centers and small towns of the Nizhny Novgorod region. The first stage was based on a sample of 516 people (2002), the second stage - on a sample 366 people (2014). The study was made by the cross-section method. During the interview participants formulated their own vision of the majority opinion on the prospects of the city, expressed their individual views on urban development programs, and stated areas where they were willing to show personal participation, which allowed to determine the changes in the indices of activity, altruism and solidarity of citizens in the studied period. Data analysis clearly points to the "cohort effect" in assessing the status of citizens groups of different age over the study period and, accordingly, changes in the socio-psychological dimension of regional identity. The cohort effect is evident on the material of the overall priorities of citizens in the city and region development: all age groups have radically changed their views on the values of the majority over 12 years, particularly due socio-cultural and historical transformation. The cohort effect is also identified it the analysis of social integration indicators - solidarity and altruism. Market economy transitions, socio-political culture transformations have particularly affected social integration indicators in the group of citizens of middle and old age.
Modern urban performance depends not only on the city's endorsement of hard infrastructure (physical capital), but also on the availability and quality of knowledge communication and social infrastructure (intellectual capital and social capital). This is one of the clear reasons why the concept of Smart Cities recently attracted a great amount of attention, both from academia and city planners. One of the challenges of the Smart City concept is how to raise human capital among people, such as making them culturally sensitive, mobile and to improve other social characteristics. This challenge is especially valid for industrial cities that are facing economic turbulence and a demand for revitalizing their public spaces and economic specialties. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between the amount of international students in Russian universities with the positive changes that occur in a Russian student’s human capital, and their neighbourhood areas, especially in public spaces. We aim to support the hypothesis that a network of “internationalized” universities serves as a revitalization measure for a city, facilitating the development of its surrounding areas, and reducing political and social risks within a society. Research methods for gathering data are: deductive trend search, which uses a literature review from leading academic journals and the empirical study based on the created questionnaire. This questionnaire forms a dataset which consists of a number of master courses held in English from one of the leading Russian universities based in Moscow. In this paper, we explain the research design and the results of a long-term project which we expect to complete in Russia in 2016.
City planning is a means for determining policy, appropriate policy in a democracy is determined through political debate. The right course of action is always a matter of choice, never of fact. Planners should engage in the political process as advocates of the interests of government and other groups. Intelligent choice about public policy would be aided if different political, social, and economic interests produced city plans. Plural plans rather than a single agency plan should be presented to the public. Politicizing the planning process requires that the planning function be located in either or both the executive and legislative branches and the scope of planning be broadened to include all areas of interest to the public.
This International Conference "Positioning Planning in the Global Crises" aims to bring together researchers, scientists, practicioners and students to exchange and share their experiences, new ideas, and research results about all aspects of Urban, Regional Planning, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.
The main research objective of this chapter is to examine sustainable development strategies (SDSs) of urban centers of the Arctic Zone of Russia (AZRF). There are three specific purposes for this analysis: first, to evaluate the scope and focus of such strategies; second, to find out whether these strategies are efficient or not and whether they improve the situation in the particular city or not; third, to understand whether these policies are of short-term/single-issue character or they represent forward-looking/comprehensive strategies. The Arctic municipalities view building SDSs as an important policy priority for themselves. They have tried to create proper legal and institutional settings for the development and implementation of such strategies. They have made great strides in implementing some sustainabilityrelated projects over the last 10 to 15 years. There was a clear shift from survival/reactive to capacity-building/proactive SDSs. Despite some residual problems and shortcomings, AZRF cities’ SDSs evolve in a rather dynamic and positive way.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.