THE IMPACT OF RELIGIOUS IDENTITY AND PERCEIVED PSYCHOLOGICAL CLOSENESS ON PARENT-CHILD VALUE SIMILARITY IN DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS CONTEXTS
This paper describes the impact of religious identity and perceived parent-child psychological closeness on their value similarity in different religious contexts (contexts of religious minority and majority). The total sample includes 454 respondents. Parents and adolescent children of 118 Russian Orthodox Christian families from the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (with 72% Muslim population) and 109 Russian Orthodox families from the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (with 91% Orthodox population) were surveyed using a questionnaire measuring values (Portrait Values Questionnaire-Revised – PVQ-R of Schwartz), religious identity and scales of perceived parent-child closeness assessed by parents and adolescents developed by the authors. The results of path analysis showed that religious identity of Russian Orthodox adolescents in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic predicted parent-child value similarity, while the perceived psychological closeness of adolescents with their parents negatively related to their value similarity. In the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania parental religious identity and psychological closeness assessed by children predict the parent-child value similarity. In these two North Caucasus republics we also found that psychological closeness assessed by parents negatively related to parent-child value similarity. The discussion of the results is devoted to the role of religious context in the impact of religious identity and perceived psychological closeness on parent-child value similarity.
Originally published in 1951, Social Choice and Individual Valuesintroduced “Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem” and founded the field of social choice theory in economics and political science. This new edition, including a new foreword by Nobel laureate Eric Maskin, reintroduces Arrow’s seminal book to a new generation of students and researchers.
"Far beyond a classic, this small book unleashed the ongoing explosion of interest in social choice and voting theory. A half-century later, the book remains full of profound insight: its central message, ‘Arrow’s Theorem,’ has changed the way we think.”—Donald G. Saari, author of Decisions and Elections: Explaining the Unexpected
Kenneth J. Arrow is professor of economics emeritus, Stanford University, and a Nobel laureate. Eric S. Maskin is Albert O. Hirschman Professor, School of Social Science, Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, and a Nobel laureate.
The research is focused on value orientations of representatives of two confessions: Christianity (Orthodoxy) and Islam (Sunnism) and also on the role of individual values in economical attitudes and notions. The goal of the study is to detect interconnections between cultural values and economical attitudes and notions of Russian students that represent the two confessions. We assume that there are differences of interconnections between individual values and economical attitudes and notions of Christian and Muslim students. Christian and Muslim students of Russian both secular and theological universities of Moscow and Kazan participated in the study. Sample size is 217 respondents (113 Christian students and 104 Sunni students, mean age is 19 years old). The research was conducted by means of social-psychological survey.According to the results of the study, interdenominational differences of individual values exist. Importance of “Conformity” and “Tradition” values of the bloc “Conservation” is significantly higher in the group of Muslim students than in the group of Christian students. These values express interests of Muslim students and promote preservation of their group. Importance of “Hedonism” values is significantly higher in the group of Christian students than in the group of Muslim students. It was revealed that there are interdenominational differences of interconnections between values and economical attitudes and notions. Moreover, it was detected that “Self-direction” and “Achievement” values are connected with efficient economical attitudes and notions regardless of confession.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.