First-pass neocortical processing of spoken language takes only 30 msec: Electrophysiological evidence
Fast real-time processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. A ubiquitous information medium used by humans is spoken language, but the neural dynamics of its comprehension is still poorly understood. Here, we scrutinized the earliest electrophysiological activity elicited in the human brain by spoken words and matched meaningless word-like stimuli using a lexical auditory oddball paradigm, an established technique for investigating cortical activation patterns underlying early automatic stages of language processing. We show that the earliest cortical reflection of word comprehension takes place during the electrophysiological P1 evoked response, at about 30 ms following the word disambiguation point, and takes the form of an enhanced brain activation for familiar meaningful words, even when they are presented outside the focus of attention. This previously unknown ultra-early lexicality effect is underpinned by left temporo-frontal cortical circuits and likely reflects a first-pass automatic lexical access that precedes later stages of lexical and semantic processing described in previous literature. The results suggest that the brain operates with maximum speed and efficiency to extract meaningful (including linguistic) information from the sensory input, which is a neurobiological capacity essential for timely and appropriate reactions to external events.
The article is dedicated to neural basis of verb processing. Three verb groups were analysed: abstract, tool action and hand action verbs. We found that imageability of a verb might influence both the time of its processing and the amount of cerebral activation it is related to.
Increasing evidence suggests that neuronal communication is a defining property of functionally specialized brain networks and that it is implemented through synchronization between population activities of distinct brain areas. The detection of long-range coupling in electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data using conventional metrics (such as coherence or phase-locking value) is by definition contaminated by spatial leakage. Methods such as imaginary coherence, phase-lag index or orthogonalized amplitude correlations tackle spatial leakage by ignoring zero-phase interactions. Although useful, these metrics will by construction lead to false negatives in cases where true zero-phase coupling exists in the data and will underestimate interactions with phase lags in the vicinity of zero. Yet, empirically observed neuronal synchrony in invasive recordings indicates that it is not uncommon to find zero or close-to-zero phase lag between the activity profiles of coupled neuronal assemblies. Here, we introduce a novel method that allows us to mitigate the undesired spatial leakage effects and detect zero and near zero phase interactions. To this end, we propose a projection operation that operates on sensor-space cross-spectrum and suppresses the spatial leakage contribution but retains the true zero-phase interaction component. We then solve the network estimation task as a source estimation problem defined in the product space of interacting source topographies. We show how this framework provides reliable interaction detection for all phase-lag values and we thus refer to the method as Phase Shift Invariant Imaging of Coherent Sources (PSIICOS). Realistic simulations demonstrate that PSIICOS has better detector characteristics than existing interaction metrics. Finally, we illustrate the performance of PSIICOS by applying it to real MEG dataset recorded during a standard mental rotation task. Taken together, using analytical derivations, data simulations and real brain data, this study presents a novel source-space MEG/EEG connectivity method that overcomes previous limitations and for the first time allows for the estimation of true zero-phase coupling via non-invasive electrophysiological recordings.
In his paper to explore such a problem as an identification of philosophical knowledge is proposed to turn to the H.-G. Gadamer's project of philosophical hermeneutics, within the framework of which there's an attempt to determine the universal specific features in any case of philosophizing. As an interesting point it seems to be a convergence between poetry and philosophy on the grounds of some of their common features itemized in the paper. The convergence with poetry in particular and with work of art in principle allows to distinguish clearly the philosophy from the science and reveal its (philosophy) importance in the context of daily practice for each person. As a distinctive feature of philosophizing is noted its speculative nature, especial work with the concept.
The book contains the results of research in the systemic study of the English language.
The Abstract book contains the abstracts of the posters presentations of the participants of the Methodological school: Methods of data processing in EEg and MEG, Moscow, 16-30th of April, 2013. The School was devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of the contemporary methods of the dynamic mapping of brain activity by analysis of multichannel MEG and EEG.
The Abstract book contains the abstracts of the posters presentations of the participants of the Methodological school: Methods of data processing in EEG and MEG, Moscow, 16-30th of April, 2013. The School was devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of the contemporary methods of the dynamic mapping of brain activity by analysis of multichannel MEG and EEG.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.