23 April 2019
19 April 2019
19 April 2019
The problem of identification and adequate exploitation of institutional prerequisites when working out educational strategies is the subject. The report suggests testing new idea where the representation of such concepts as institutional prerequisites, institutional stoppers, as well as the typology of institutional prerequisites aimed at crafting and implementing strategy for education system development are being introduced. The authors’ expert judgments based on the conclusions of the analysis eighteen local educational systems of St. Petersburg development programs 2011–2016 are the reason for the chosen topic relevance.
In this paper we analyze macroevolutionary processes that took place during the very prolonged late archaic and early civilization periods. During those periods two macrochanges took place, i.e.: first – the formation of more or less institutionalized political subsystem, starting from the complexity level of chiefdoms and their analogues; and second – the formation of archaic states and their analogues with further institutionalization of the political subsystem. All this macroevolutionary process is generally denoted here as primary (initial) politogenesis, whereas the early state formation process is regarded as a component of the politogenesis. We denote it as ‘initial’ because the politogenesis did not stop with the state formation, but continued further with the evolution from the early state to the developed one, and even from the developed state to the mature one.
The article examines the practice of early release on parole for persons before being sentenced. The pre-trial restrictions concern detention and house arrest. The main purpose of the article is a reasonable response to the question about whether the right to set off time of detention under house arrest in six months’ imprisonment necessary for the emergence of the right to parole? To achieve the purpose, the article analyzes the current enforcement practice and opinions of scientists on this issue and then based on the results presents arguments to defend author’s position. The key findings of the research are: 1) offsetting time spent in detention to calculate a factual time in imprisonment to address the issue of parole is a common practice based on the positions of the highest judicial bodies of the country and supported by part of scholars in the field of criminal law; 2) when deciding in practice on recalculating time under house arrest, the decision is based on the following reasoning: since the time of the person under house arrest shall be credited to the period of detention, and the detention period is included in the term of imprisonment, when calculating the actual period of detention, imprisonment for parole period of house arrest should be included in that period; 3) this reasoning is flawed because it is based on a dogmatic rather than systemic interpretation of the Criminal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure without understanding the role of the set six-month term in the parole system of criminal law measures; 4) by its nature, the deprivation of liberty and detention of a person from the point of criminal law are almost identical, but the house arrest is substantially different from them; 5) the paper proposes to 54 Russian Law: Conditions, Perspectives, Commentaries amend the Resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 21.04.2009 № 8 “On Judicial Practice Parole from Serving a Sentence, Replacing the Unserved Part of Punishment with a Milder one”.
This volume includes the research articles of the participants of the Annual international scientific-practical conference «Innovations in science and education», which took place in the Educational private institution of higher education «International Jewish Institute of Economics, Finance and Law». The works are devoted to the wide range of topics that were discussed in the following sections of the conference: «Innovations in the field of economics, management and business-informatics», «Actual problems of jurisprudence», «Interdisciplinary cooperation in Jewish studies: from thought to text».
Saussurean notions of langue and parole provide social scientists with an analytical distinction of on line and off line aspects of social phenomena. It is agency that links both aspects together or rather converts one into another and back. It is human agency that translates or encodes institutional norms into processes of various temporal and spatial scales. Respectively it decodes processes or extracts institutional norms from them.
Analysis of present and historical usage of the words institutio, institutum, institution and the like shows that there is a range of homonymous terms that conceptualize different phenomena. They are off line norms, their on line applications and products of the applications, organizations that serve as agency of both encoding and decoding norms etc.
Interaction of on line, off line and agency institutions results in an ongoing saturation and purification of institutions. This in turn allows to distinguish thick and thin as well as formal and informal institutions. Simultaneously all those varieties of institutions are shaped into various temporal and spatial scales. This produces a motley of overlapping and mutually inclusive entities. All together they could be best presented by an image of flaky pastry of politics.
The article further presents a sequence of institutional scales, namely evolutionary orders, historical regimes and everyday practices packed into each other. Alternative ways of conceptualizing them as material objects, mechanisms, organisms, species, life forms and ecosystems are discusses in the article.
The article analyzes the opportunities for Russian interpretation of the concept of social liberalism
The comparison between biological and social macroevolution is a very important (though insufficiently studied) subject, the analysis of which offers new significant possibilities to understand the processes, the trends, mechanisms, and peculiarities of both types of macroevolution.
The present article aims to analyze the degree of modern business ethics practices like corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Russian enterprises.