РАССМОТРЕНИЕ ДЕЛ ОБ ОСПАРИВАНИИ СДЕЛОК С ПРЕДПОЧТЕНИЕМ: ВОПРОСЫ ТЕОРИИ И ПРАКТИКИ
ipation of the bankruptcy and being challenged as those having caused harm as a result of rendering preference to one of the creditors. Special attention is given to the analysis of judicial and arbitration practice. Purpose: to analyze the grounds and general procedure for challenging transactions with preference, as well as the criteria allowing court to find the third party being honest or dishonest while making the transaction with the debtor. Methods: analytical, system, comparative legal, technical-legal methods are used. Results: the article emphasizes the need Рассмотрение дел об оспаривании сделок с предпочтением: вопросы теории и практики 77 for more accurate definition of the concept "preferable satisfaction". It is noted that this concept is not specified in the Bankruptcy law of Russia, which leads to its broad interpretation. Declaration of a transaction with preference as invalid requires existence of any of the conditions specified in Art. 61.3 of the Bankruptcy law. As this list is open, preference can take place in other cases, apart from those on the list. Conclusions: when working out regulations on challenging a debtor’s transactions, the legislature used rather complicated legal construction. This was done with the aim of protecting rights and interests of all participants of bankruptcy relations by means of combining objective and subjective grounds for holding transactions invalid in the most efficient manner
The article in question considers the possibility of increasing the efficiency of bankruptcy procedures, as well as measures aimed at preventing bankruptcy by means of using different types of agreements concluded in the interests of the parties concerned. There has been laid out a classification of agreements - those used within the framework of measures leading to insolvency (bankruptcy) prevention, on the one hand, and those concluded in the process of restructuring debts. Examples from Russian judicial practice, same as other countries' legislation rules, are adduced.
Dans les conditions du développement constant du marché international, il est évident que, de plus en plus souvent, les cocontractants se heurtent aux législations d’autres États qui régissent les procédures d’insolvabilité de leur débiteur étranger. Une des plus importantes problématiques est le rang que la loi accorde à tel ou tel créancier. Nous avons donc analysé le classement des créanciers en examinant le droit russe, ainsi que la jurisprudence. Nos recherches ont montré que le droit russe fait une distinction entre les créanciers selon la date de naissance de leurs créances, ce qui induit une diversité de régimes. Comme en droit français, il existe un certain nombre de créanciers qui peuvent court-circuiter la procédure. Mais le cercle de ces créanciers extraordinaires ne correspond pas toujours à celui établi par le droit français, ce qui doit être pris en compte lors de la conclusion d’un contrat avec un cocontractant russe. Nous constatons que des dispositions particulières du droit russe concernant la satisfaction des créanciers garantis par une sûreté réelle spéciale permettent de défendre effectivement les intérêts de ces créanciers.
The article raises the problem of restitution in the Russian civil law. The author concludes that restitution is not an optimal instrument to regulate the consequenses of invalid transactions.
One of the most problematic matters of the bankruptcy procedure is a fair distribution of the cost of the debtor's assets among the creditors under liquidation of the debtor. The issue becomes particularly complex for foreign creditors, who often do not have sufficient knowledge about the legal regulation of bankruptcy abroad. In this regard, it seems urgent the question of distribution priorities in foreign legal systems. In this article, the author analyzes the legislation and jurisprudence of France regarding the order of "pre-commencement" creditors’ claims settlement. At present, in this branch of law, a number of reforms have occurred and need to be scrutinized. The most part of Russian studies devoted to bankruptcy proceedings in France do not cover this field. In this study, the author describes the differences between the "pre-commencement" and "post-commencement" creditors, as well as considers the conditions for the recognition of several claims as privileged for the purposes of distribution of property of the debtor. Further, the author examines in detail the sequence established by the legislator concerning the distribution priorities as to the "pre-commencement" creditors, depending on the nature of the property (movable or immovable) to distributed. Finally, the paper presents the methods, which allow creditors to obtain satisfaction of their claims beyond the statutory priority, that is, in a preferential order. Based on the study the author concludes that there exists an economic component of the legal regulation of bankruptcy in France. By introducing certain institutions, the legislator can regulate (stimulate or repress) the activity of several businesses. At the same time, since under liquidation the purpose of the bankruptcy procedure is primarily an equitable distribution of the value of the debtor's assets among creditors, the priority of their claims is an essential characteristic of this branch of the law of a particular state. The results of this research and the conclusions may be used both by practicing lawyers to determine the status of a particular claim against the debtor and by scientific researchers in the study of various approaches to the concept and the legal regime of the "pre-commencement" claims.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/