Подходы к классификации вертикальных ограничивающих соглашений
The urgent need to prepare the Russian version of Guidelines on vertical restraints (the analog of very detailed EU Guidelines) requires intense efforts. In particular, it is necessary to define and to describe many types of vertical restraints that are not mentioned in Russian antitrust law now (the list contains only the maximum/minimum resale price maintenance, exclusive territories, fixed payments for access to the distribution network). The first part of the article discusses the basic types of vertical restraints and their classification criteria used in theoretical literature. The second part of the article is dedicated to the description of vertical restraints mentioned in EU Guidelines on Vertical Restraints. This document pays attention not only to basic types of vertical restraints, but also to much more complicated distribution systems. In the third part of the article the possible classifications of these types of vertical restraints are considered.
The paper studies the specific features of trade-off between type I and type II errors in vertical restraints regulation. It pays attention to possible deviations from trade-off logic due to separate consideration of enforcement errors and some imperfections of Russian legal rules. The game theoretic model which is discussed in the second part of the article can be useful for formal analysis of externalities created by the enforcement errors.
The development of Internet retailing implies the presence of competing interests among the participants of the supply chain and requires regulation of vertical restraints. As government regulation of the vertical restraints due to their possible anticompetitive effects, then the change in the nature of competition requires a review of applicable regulations, which were adopted on June 1, 2010 in the EU. The new rules of regulation on the vertical restraints will remain in place until 2022.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.