Научно-педагогическое обеспечение оценки качества образования
On the basis of a monitoring of educational and working trajectories of graduates of schools and higher education institutions The authors think it expedient for studying problems in adaptation of first-year students to training in higher education institutions to sort out groups of fundamentally different students on the basis of the cluster analysis. With the use of a comprehensive survey of Moscow first-year students seven groups are sorted out, and specific difficulties in learning are analyzed in each case, as well as differences between students from different groups in terms of their certainty when selecting Statistics and Sociology of Education an occupation, when assessing social life in a higher education institution, in terms of peculiarities of their goals in life and education.
In Russia from 2009 College admission is based on results of Unified State Exam. Entrant applies to no more than five universities. Admission mechanism is defined by government for all state universities. In the paper the authors model how entrant chooses university for application and, based on the entrant's choice prediction, the shortages of the current admission mechanism are revealed.
The article analyzes the impact of the results of the unified state examination on the academic performance of students. We used for calculations the information of exam results and current progress for students enrolled in the HSE Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematicsin 2014 and 2015. Data for analysis are taken from documents of the LMS (Learning Management System) HSEMIEM. The influence of the Unified National Exam on the performance on similar items, as well as the impact of average use on academic performance at the totality of objects. Also described trends in student performance for several modules. On the basis of the conducted analysis it is concluded from the results of the exam in three subjects (mathematics, physics and Russian language) for formation of a contingent successfully successful students
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.