Псевдоаналоговая коммуникация в группе роботов
This paper discusses local communication issues in a group of homogeneous robots for the purpose of decentralizing group management. A short review is presented of existing research in this area, which is mainly devoted to solutions for individual problems in the field. The possibility is considered to program the messages robots exchange within a group as fuzzy (pseudo-analog). There are comparisons with the natural world, where the social behavior of animals is negotiated with non-distinct messages in a continuous pattern. Issues regarding the physical aspects of organizing communication channels are considered. Robots that are used in group robotics have limited sensor and computing functions, but they should nonetheless be able to orient themselves relevant to one another to coordinate their common actions. Accordingly, the idea is proposed to emulate signal transmissions using a discrete IR-channel. The paper defends the grounds for interpreting received messages based on their sequence and the reactions they produce. The results of computer experiments that model the problem of individualized minds in robots are presented. The results of the computer experiments show that the use of fuzzy messages make robot behavior more variable, and allows the group to function more stably while consuming less energy for movement. These results prove that the proposed method is indeed viable, and also that message comprehension and the reliability of communication channels increases when fuzzy (pseudo-analog) messages are used.
Chapter is devoted to the planning of joint action for tasks of robotics group
Work solutions are proposed for problems of leader definition and role distribution in homogeneous groups of robots. It was shown that transition from a swarm to a collective of robots with hierarchical organisation is possible using exclusively local interaction. The local re-voting algorithm is central to the procedure for choice of leader while distribution of roles can be achieved by a wave method. The basis for this approach is the static swarm model characterised by the absence of a set control centre; it represents the network fixed at some time interval as a set of locally interacting agents. A task of cooperative hunting by distributed mobile robots based on local interaction was considered. Two strategies were used for the hunting task solution: individual hunting and pack-hunting. Simulation results showed that symbiosis of leader election and role distribution procedures has advantages over the individual strategy.
Work solutions are proposed for problems of leader definition and role distribution in homogeneous groups of robots. It is shown that transition from a swarm to a collective of robots with hierarchical organization is possible using exclusively local interaction. The local revoting algorithm is central to the procedure for choice of leader while redistribution of roles can be achieved by a wave method. The basis for this approach is the static swarm model, which is characterized by the absence of a set control center and represents the network fixed at some time interval as a set of locally interacting agents.
One of the widespread approaches to the issues of control in the group robotics is application of the social behavior models in the groups of robots. In this paper the author proposes to use this approach to fulfill the tasks of foraging. As a role model a Formicidae ant is proposed. This task is considered as a combination of three stages: finding food, returning to the ant hill and repeating the way to the place where food was found. It was proven that in order to come back home and repeatedly walk the way the Formicidae ants were navigated predominantly by the visual means using vector navigation (path integration) and landmark-guidance mechanisms. The basis of the proposed method is formed by the principles of memorizing the way by the visual landmarks and fuzzy control. The model of describing the way is introduced to the robot, which can define colors of the landmarks and approximately sense the direction to the landmark in respect to itself. A pattern for formation of a succinct way description was created, with the help of which the scout robot memorizes the way to the “food”. Certain regulations were developed, which let the follower robot transfer from the description of the route to the actions of its reproduction and in many ways copy an ant’s behavior. The actions are presented as elementary behavioral procedures, and each behavioral procedure is realized as a finite state automata. The results of the simulation modeling, which was conducted with the help of the framework of ROS based modeling system, are presented. Experiments were conducted in polygons with barriers and without them, with regular and irregular placing of the landmarks. As a quality criterion for the proposed method the author offers to consider a successful passing of the route by the follower robot, and this indicator in different series of experiments varies from 92 up to 98 %. The proposed method does not require robot’s great computation capacity and advanced sensory abilities. The developed method can also be applied to the tasks of reconnaissance and patrolling.
Chapter is devoted to the problems of planning of joint actions and the selection of the initial objectives of the team of robots
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.