Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval
Language is viewed as one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in people with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes – lexical activation and lexical selection – and examining which of these can be compensated for after left-hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation.
Abstract. There is currently a great need for modern, standardized neuropsychological tests for language assessment in Russian speakers with aphasia. Our group is working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT). Within the scope of this work, two subtests for single-word comprehension of nouns and verbs were developed considering contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics. The task for both subtests was spoken word-to-picture matching. The subtests were normed on individuals with aphasia (n = 45) and a control group (n = 30). This resulted in the final set of 30 diagnostic trials for nouns and verbs matched on relevant psychometric properties which are sensitive to language impairments for both fluent and non-fluent types of aphasia. This set of trials will be included in the final version of the RAT.
We present an attempt to describe the semantics of “embarrassment” laughter in aphasic and nonlanguage-impaired discourse based on the samples from the Russian CliPS corpus based on its place in discourse.
There is a need for modern neurolinguisitcstandardized test for language assessment in aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders in Russian. Our research group is currently working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT)that is based on contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics.Language production subtests assess oral speech at each of the linguistic levels. The material for each task was selected and balanced considering modern theoretical models of language and takes into account important psycholinguistic factors. For many tasks, there is no standardized analogues in Russian with extensive, theoretically justified and carefully selected linguistic material. The subtests were piloted in a group of neurologically healthy individuals (n=20) and patients with different types of aphasia (n=20). As expected patients with aphasia performed worse compared to age-matched healthy controls across all tasks. Items demonstrating high sensitivity and reliability were selected to be included in the final version of the test.
The study of cerebral organization of usage of verbs and nouns was carried out by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The influence of strategy of word actualization (verbs and nouns extraction on paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections) and the level of automation of these processes on the pattern of cerebral cortex activation was shown.
The paper discusses whether the role of the right-hemisphere in action naming in persons with aphasia is maladaptive or facilitatory.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.