A comparative study of work ethic among Muslims and Protestants: Multilevel evidence
This article deals with the recently revealed paradox that contemporary Muslims score higher on Protestant work ethic than contemporary Protestants. The author tests whether this phenomenon is supported by World Values Survey (WVS) data. According to Inglehart’s theory of post-materialist shift, work ethic should be stronger in the developing societies where there is a lack of existential security. The author also tests whether the effects of the Protestant work ethic extend beyond the religious population of Protestant countries. The multilevel models built on 25,437 respondents in 55 countries show no significant difference in work ethic between Muslims and Protestants. Living in a historically Protestant society does not increase work ethic, but being religious in a Protestant society does. As countries develop, work ethic is likely to decrease. This poses further questions about the universal features of religious ethics and the non-religious factors explaining the economic progress associated with the Protestant work ethic.
In this article I examine the situation of girls in the North Caucasus, a region that combines features of both a traditional society with its emphasis on the value of religion, family, and older generations, and a modernized society with its emphasis on the economic emancipation of women, and the pursuit of self-development and individual life strategies. The research model used interviews with girls and an analysis of essays written by girls in high school to explore their life values, priorities, and the impact of religion and traditions on their lives. The research also sought to identify girls place in the gender, age, and status hierarchies of local societies. © Berghahn Journals.
The Society of Muslim Brotherhood (MB) is one of key actors in the political process in Egypt, however, its ideological agenda is still a subject of controversy. Some experts regard it as deriving from radical thoughts of Sayyid Qutb, who was a main ideologist of the Society in 1950s and 1960s, while the recent MB leaders claim to refuse it. This paper discusses the fundamental political concepts established by the most significant ideologists of the MB. A number of their basic works reflecting political, legal and social theories were collected and investigated. By analyzing and comparing the basic political ideas reflected in these sources, we were able to discover common roots in the theories of earlier and later generations and to trace differences between their views. It was concluded, that the contemporary MB thinkers generally adhere to modern and even reformist interpretations. This conclusion provides a quite different understanding of the Muslim Brotherhood ideology, which has been primarily perceived as a radical and ultra-conservative since the 1950s.
The Union Européenne des Arabisants et Islamisants (UEAI), the most prestigious association of European Arabists and Islamicists, was founded in 1962. It is has grown to become the preeminent academic network for Arabic and Islamic studies across Europe. Currently, the organisation has more than 300 members representing almost all European countries. The biannual academic conferences of the UEAI, always held in a different European country, are characterised by a broad spectrum of thematic papers and discussions in the various fields of Arabic and Islamic studies
An article devoted to political development in Egypt after the Revolution 25 January 2011. Authors concludes that country take a course on Islamisation of political system.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.