Современное родительство как предмет исследования
The article briefly discusses the changes associated with parenthood and parental experience. One of the important characteristics of modern parenthood is the diversification of parental experience. There are many different discourses of parenthood, and specific parent needs to determine his or her own position. Educational programs for parents, training and courses help to solve this problem. Internal personal resources are important in the development of such programs, in particular parental self-efficacy is a promising concept for research and practice.
A review of specific style of parenting studies is presented. This parenting style is called “helicopter parenting” in Western scientific literature, it is distinguished by excessive parental care for an adolescent who begins his (her) independent life. The data on the connections of this style with the psychological well-being and academic achievements of adolescents are summarized. It is shown that despite the general dysfunctionality of this style, it’s certain aspects can be positively associated with the adolescents’ well-being. A review of cross-cultural research shows that there are as some universal model of parental behavior that provides an adolescent with a sense of secure attachment in any culture, as significant cultural -specific patterns. In the cases when the dysfunctional (from Western culture point of view) characteristics of parenting are correlated with certain cultural norms, they do not have such a negative impact on the psychological well-being of an adolescent, as in Western culture.
he article considers the main stages in the development of educational programs for parents in Europe, USA and Russia. The authors trace changes in the content of the programs from the emergence of the first schools for mothers, focused on informing parents in the field of hygiene and health issues, till the emergence of parenting trainings for the development of parental competencies and skills. Currently the main trend in the development of educational programs for parents is their orientation to the personality of the parent. The article explains the use of the category of parental self-efficacy for designing educational programs.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.