Preschoolers inductive selectivity as a function of implicit and conceptual learning
Since pre-school age, children rely on contextual information while generalizing information about new objects. It is still uncertain what underlies this inductive selectivity; whether it is associative learning, which depends on the numbers of features that an object has, or conceptual learning, which depends on the features’ content. In the first experiment, we varied the contextual information and found that 4-5-year-olds rely more on contextual features of the object (shape and colour of the background), but not on spatial ones (location). In the second experiment we varied the combination of context features and showed that, given a lack of information about an object (shape only), children rely on contextual spatial features more than on the object’s features. Moreover, they prefer not to rely on contextual information at all if the object’s information was modified (same shape but different colour). Together, these results indicate the dependence of inductive selectivity on conceptual learning, not only associative learning.
Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) spielte als genialer Entdecker von Naturgesetzen eine zentrale Rolle in der frühen Naturphilosophie Schellings und Hegels; die Romantik feierte ihn als Prototypen des Genies schlechthin. Um 1840 setzt sich Schelling in einem veränderten Kontext für die erste Gesamtausgabe der Werke Keplers ein: Die Naturphilosophie wird nun vom Empirismus und Induktivismus scharf kritisiert. Neu entdeckte Dokumente belegen, wie man dennoch auf Kepler zurückgreifen konnte; gezeigt wird, dass sich idealistische und nach-idealistische Philosophieauffassungen also nicht ausschließen, sondern dass die von Idealisten und Romantikern betonte Genialität Keplers, seine Phantasie und Intuition, zu Kennzeichen wissenschaftlicher Methode umgedeutet werden können. – Die Darstellung wird durchgehend von großenteils neu erschlossenen und hier erstmals bekanntgemachten Archivalien, vor allem aus Briefwechseln, begleitet.
The article deals with the problem of role parent-child relations, namely, the social roles in the family that the child "plays" in the family in relation to mother or father. The content of different family roles depends on the place of the child within the family community and its role in that community. The author examines the role of the child in the family as a condition of his full personal development. The aim of this published study is to correlate children’s roles in the family with the level of self-esteem and anxiety levels of the older preschoolers, as well as the peculiarities of their relationship to the members of their family. As a diagnostic tool, in addition to the known techniques, was used the author's method of "Social role of the family" (version of "Roles of the child") by Vasileva E.N., Orlov A.V. The analysis of the data revealed the children’s roles, under which among the older preschoolers was reduced the level of anxiety, increased self-esteem and family situation was perceived as a positive and favorable. This article may be used in diagnostic and advisory work of the practical psychologist in education.
The present manual is written on the basis of the course on inductive logic which is delivered in English to philosophy students of National Research University Higher School of Economics. The manual describes the main approaches to constructing inductive logic; it clarifies its key notions and rules, and it formulates its major problems. This introductory text can be useful for all readers who are interested in contemporary inductive logic.
The research is aimed to elaboration of the tools to measure the parental evaluation of the municipal preschool service, as a part of complex evaluation of preschool sector of education. The research needs are related to increasing number of types of preschool service providers, appearing nongovernmental providers, competition growing, including municipal sector. On the qualitative part, the individual interviews with parents (N=30) are conducting, the gathered data will be analyzed: coded, classified, and conceptualized to identify scope of parent’s evaluation criteria and parent’s meanings of that criteria.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.