“Reverse Gradualism”, Investment Collapse and Monetary Degradation In Russia In The 1990s
In the 1990s The Russian transitional economy was characterized by many adverse economic processes, but the very important are two of these ones. The first one was the long and biggest fall in output and fixed capital investment. The second was monetary degradation which is increase of primitive mediums of exchange and means of payment – cash, inter-enterprise arrears ("non-payments") and barter – and (relative and absolute) decrease of "advanced" kinds of money. The goal of this article is to explain interconnections between these processes. The main idea is that these phenomena were generated by shock therapy policy which is turned to be a something like “reverse gradualism”. It means that shock therapy policy is the immediate introduction of all reforms but is not immediate completion of all ones. If that policy takes place, logically later reforms are ended more early because of its extremely small relative duration! That was a case of Russia in the 1990s.
Since 2003, by decision of the Presidium of the Higher Attestation Commission of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, « Scientific Works of the Free Economic Society of Russia» are included in the «List of leading scientific journals and publications» produced in the Russian Federation in which basic scientific results of dissertations for the degree of doctor and candidate of sciences should be published.
This article is devoted to the questions relevant to the notion “investment”, the special features of the investment.
There is an attempt to consider this difficult and ambiguous phenomenon from the point of view of economic and legal doctrines in article. The attempt is allowed to investigate complex the content and essence of this phenomenon, to show its economic and legal features.
These investment features are made to set up correlation and distinguish between the notion «investment» and similar phenomena.
In addition, there are the author's definitions of the notions “investments.” For example, author propose to define the “investments” the economic point of view as - it is the capital, which has special purpose (to gain the benefits), and the “investment process”- it is the placement process of the capital, which has special purpose (to gain the benefits).
The «investments» as legal point of view is a benefit or set of the benefits which are put in objects of business and (or) other activity for receiving profit and (or) achievement of other social effect.
National Research University – Higher School of Economics (Moscow) and author has been researching the leasing market of Russia for 18 years. Particular attention in the article presents the dynamics that characterizes the development of market in the country by value of new contracts, the largest leasing portfolios, calculated author of segmental structure of the leasing market and regional structure. This article presents the results of the econometric analysis of the relationship of the value of new contracts with the amount of advances, terms of contracts and lease rate per cent. Exploring the structure of financing of leasing operations, the author has developed a new approach to determining leverage leasing projects.
In this monograph revealed the key theoretical and practical issues in the field of investment projects funding with financial market instruments used by the real sector corporations. The authors proposed a scientific model of forecasting the level of interest rates in the economy with the aim of building plans for its activities, and also provides a mechanism to identify the most effective instrument of investment project funding. The main provisions are designed for the real sector of corporate economy. The authors have discussed in detail the tools of state regulation of the process of interaction between the financial and real sectors and put forward recommendations to address the shortcomings in the existing regulation. This monograph is intended for students, teachers and researchers, as well as professionals working in the field of financial management in business organizations.
Beer was the drink of choice in many ancient societies and throughout the past centuries in large parts of the world. Right now, it is globally by far the most important alcoholic drink, in volume and value terms. The largest brewing companies have developed into global multinationals. The beer market is characterized by strong growth in emerging economies, by a substantial decline of (per capita) beer consumption in traditional markets, and a shift to new products. There has been a strong interaction between governments (politics) and markets (economics) in the beer industry. For centuries, taxes on beer or its raw materials were a major source of tax revenue for governments. Governments have also regulated the beer industry for reasons related to quality, health, and competition. The beer market is not only an interesting sector to study in itself but also yields important general economic insights. This book is the first economic analysis of the beer market and brewing industry. It comprises a comprehensive and unique set of economic research and analysis on the economics of beer and brewing. The various chapters cover economic history and development, demand and supply, trade and investment, geography and scale economies, technology and innovation, health and nutrition, quantity and quality, industrial organization and competition, taxation and regulation, and regional beer market developments.
The study presented in the article is devoted to topical problems of the Russian venture capital market. Despite the fact that this area has good funding from the state and the presence of large development institutions, today it can not be called successful. The authors aim was to characterize the current state of the venture market in Russia, identifying the most important problems, and form recommendations for overcoming these problems. It was accomplished by taking in-depth interviews with leading experts in the field – representatives of investment and venture funds, state development institutions and business angels. Obtain expert evaluation allowed the authors to form a holistic view about the current situation on the venture capital market, as well as to identify the possible ways of its further development.
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
This paper looks behind the standard, publicly available labor force statistics relied upon in most studies of transition economy labor markets. We analyze microdata on detailed labor force survey responses in Russia, Romania, and Estonia to measure nonstandard, boundary forms and alternative definitions of employment and unemployment. Our calculations show that measured rates are quite sensitive to definition, particularly in the treatment of household production (subsistence agriculture), unpaid family helpers, and discouraged workers, while the categories of part-time work and other forms of marginal attachment are still relatively unimportant. We find that tweaking the official definitions in apparently minor ways can produce alternative employment rates that are sharply higher in Russia but much lower in Romania and slightly lower in Estonia, and alternative unemployment rates that are sharply higher in Romania and moderately higher in Estonia and Russia.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.