Профессиональное социологическое сообщество с позиции сетевого подхода
Using network approach, we propose a new method of identifying key food exporters based on the long-range (LRIC) and short-range interaction indices (SRIC). These indices allow to detect several groups of economies with direct as well as indirect influence on the routes of different levels in the food network.
In the article, along with the historical excursus in the theory of public policy and management, undertaken analysis of the modern doctrines of state administration, which reflect the General vector of their transformation in the direction of the «abolition» of the state in the form in which we perceive. It is noted that data of the theory of «soft» States represent a challenge to the principle of national statehood. At the present stage, the emphasis is on the conformity of public policy and management certain quality criteria: innovativeness, efficiency and effectiveness, efficiency and integrity, and, most importantly, the trust of the population to the authorities. But the question remains, what is going to replace the nation-state. The author also notes the emerging theoretical studies of the last years line of restoring the unity of policy and public administration.
The article discusses the problem of expert professional communities’ which are closed to the public. Twenty-two in-depth focus interviews taken with key experts in science and technology, business and medicine from the city of Perm in the fall of 2007 served as empirical sources for the study. The article consistently examines problems of relationships with the authorities and the public and communication within groups (themes, intensity and forms). A hypothesis is advanced according to which the public space of present-day Russia is organized by the authorities, which propose both the agenda for discussion and the language for constructing public statements.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.