TMS interference with primacy and recency mechanisms reveals bimodal episodic encoding in the human brain
A classic finding of the psychology of memory is the "serial position effect." Immediate free recall of a word list is more efficient for items presented early (primacy effect) or late (recency effect), with respect to those in the middle. In an event-related, randomized block design, we interfered with the encoding of unrelated words lists with brief trains of repetitive TMS (rTMS), applied coincidently with the acoustic presentation of each word to the left dorsolateral pFC, the left intraparietal lobe, and a control site (vertex). Interference of rTMS with encoding produced a clear-cut double dissociation on accuracy during immediate free recall. The primacy effect was selectively worsened by rTMS of the dorsolateral pFC, whereas recency was selectively worsened by rTMS of the intraparietal lobe. These results are in agreement with the double dissociation between short-term and long-term memory observed in neuropsychological patients and provide direct evidence of distinct cortical mechanisms of encoding in the human brain
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
We aimed at investigating rapid effects of plasma cortisol elevations on the episodic memory phase of encoding or retrieval, and on the strength of the memory trace. Participants were asked either to select a word containing the letter "e" (shallow encoding task) or to judge if a word referred to a living entity (deep encoding task). We intravenously administered a bolus of 20mg of cortisol either 5 min before encoding or 5 min before retrieval, in a between-subjects design. The study included only male participants tested in the late afternoon, and neutral words as stimuli. When cortisol administration occurred prior to retrieval, a main effect of group emerged. Recognition accuracy was higher for individuals who received cortisol compared to placebo. The higher discrimination accuracy for the cortisol group was significant for words encoded during deep but not shallow task. Cortisol administration before encoding did not affect subsequent retrieval performance (either for deep or shallow stimuli) despite a facilitatory trend. Because genomic mechanisms take some time to develop, such a mechanism cannot apply to our findings where the memory task was performed shortly after the enhancement of glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, glucocorticoids, through non-genomic fast effects, determine an enhancement in episodic memory if administered immediately prior to retrieval. This effect is more evident if the memory trace is laid down through deep encoding operations involving the recruitment of specific neural networks.
Despite extensive research on face recognition, only a few studies have examined the integration of perceptual features with semantic, biographical, and episodic information. In order to address this issue, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to target the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the left occipital face area (OFA) during a face recognition task. rTMS was delivered during the encoding of "context" faces (i.e., linked to an occupation, e.g., "lawyer") and "no-context" faces (i.e., linked to a nonword pattern, e.g., "xxxx"). Subjects were then asked to perform a recognition memory task. Accuracy at retrieval showed a mild decrease after left OFA stimulation, whereas rTMS over the left IFG drastically compromised memory performance selectively for no-context faces. On the other hand, absence of rTMS interference on context faces might be due either to the fact that pairing an occupation to a face makes the memory trace stronger, therefore less susceptible to rTMS interference, or to a different functional specificity of the left IFG subregions.
This training manual contains information about the features of the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the main mental and neuropsychiatric disorders. The manual discusses in detail the main mechanisms of action of TMS, legal, organizational and sanitary norms of this procedure, indications and contraindications for its implementation, the peculiarities of combining TMS with psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. In separate sections, the features of the use of TMS for affective diseases, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, chronic pain, neuropsychiatric diseases, and addictions are highlighted. The textbook "Application of transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatric and neuropsychiatric practice" was prepared in the discipline "Psychiatry" in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education for students of postgraduate and additional professional education of doctors studying in the specialty "Psychiatry" (14.01.06)
The neural mechanisms underlying perceptual learning are still under investigation. Eureka effect is a form of rapid, long-lasting perceptual learning by which a degraded image, which appears meaningless when first seen, becomes recognizable after a single exposure to its undegraded version. We used online interference by focal 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to evaluate whether the parietal cortex (PC) is involved in Eureka effect, as suggested by neuroimaging data. RTMS of the PC did not affect recognition of degraded pictures when displayed 2s after the presentation of their undegraded version (learning phase). However, rTMS delivered over either right or left intraparietal sulcus simultaneously to the undegraded image presentation, disrupted identification of the degraded version of the same pictures when displayed 30 min after the learning phase. In contrast, recognition of degraded images was unaffected by rTMS over the vertex or by sham rTMS, or when rTMS of either PC was delivered 2s after the presentation of the undegraded image. Findings strongly support the hypothesis that both PC at the level of the intraparietal sulcus play a pivotal role in the Eureka effect particularly in consolidation processes, and contribute to elucidate the neural network underlying rapid perceptual learning
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.