К вопросу о современном отходничестве как преемственной модели жизнеобеспечения российской периферии
Domestic temporary labor migration is a phenomenon of pro-active forced circular departure from home, where the labor market had collapsed, to work in economically developed regions. Experts’ estimates of this phenomenon magnitude vary, but practically all of them admit its substantial impact on labor market on the one hand, and on social and economic processes in the province on the other hand. The scales and the complexity of this problem cause its importance both for the researches and the state. However, this phenomenon is studied fragmentarily, compared to more “visible” cross-border and commuter migration: the official statistics accounting agencies don’t record such a migration. Due to the same reason migrants’ activity is not regulated by the state. Observations on this specific type of migration allows finding out substantial concordance of domestic temporary labor migrants’ and historical peasants-otkhodniks’ characteristics. At the same time, the phenomenon of both new and historical otkhodnichestvo is similar to soviet «shabashnichestvo» on its characteristics. The article deals with the analysis of the contemporary otkhodnichestvo as a traditional subsistence pattern in the Russian province.
Export is not the only driver of growth that helped German economy to revive fast after the Great Recession 2008-09. As important was the package of reforms Agenda 2010 aimed at liberalization of labour market. It made employment relations more flexible inter alia by deregulation of non-standard employment. Atypical forms of employment facilitate labour market entry for recruits and long-term unemployed, they increase the scope of flexibility for both employees and business and help employers to satisfy the fluctuating labour demand. The spread of atypical employment relationship strongly contributed to German employment boom, so called “Jobwunder”, and currently Germany shows a record level of employment and quite low unemployment rate. At the same time atypical employment may cause an increase in various social risks, low-wage jobs explosion and precarisation. Still, it would be misleading to identify precarious work and non-standard employment because of the heterogeneity of the latter.
This paper gives an overview of specific features of the atypical employment in Germany, deals with its development dynamics and evaluates negative and positive effects on labour market.
Basing on the data of migrant population surplus/decline in Russian cities for the period 1991-2009 the attempt is made to evaluate the impact of the population size of a city as well as the city position in the system of central-peripheral relations on its migration balance. The author also explains the existing migration mobility pattern through hierarchy of cities within a region.
The focus of the paper is informal employment in Russia, particularly its development and dynamics as well as the measurement problems and previous research review. The author is trying to explain why it is so sustainable both in the period of crisis and in the period of economic growth. The main conclusions are that the constant increasing rates of the informal employment (almost 20% of all employed) is explained by the dominant strategy of balancing work in the formal and informal sectors and positive evaluations of its benefits and joint interests of the informal workers and their employers.
Relation between the informal employment and job satisfaction is investigated in the paper. Informal employment takes rather big place in Russian economy, what makes research of the mechanism of the informal sector of the labor market functioning very relevant. Ordered choice models with sample selection correction were estimated on the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE) data. The key result of the paper is that subjective well-being is not determined by employment status itself, crucial is conditions of choice. Individuals, who came to the informal sector because of their own choice, treat their job as well as workers' with the registered employment. So, they have no incentives for seeking to formalize their status, which could mean further growth of the informal sector.
In the present paper, on the basis of the theory of production principles and production revolutions, we reveal the interrelation between K-waves and major technological breakthroughs in history and make forecasts about features of the sixth Kondratieff wave in the light of the Cybernetic Revolution that, from our point of view, started in the 1950s. We assume that the sixth K-wave in the 2030s and 2040s will merge with the final phase of the Cybernetic Revolution (which we call a phase of self-regulating systems). This period will be characterized by the breakthrough in medical technologies which will be capable to combine many other technologies into a single complex of MBNRIC-technologies (med-bio-nano-robo-info-cognitive technologies). The article offers some forecasts concerning the development of these technologies.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.