Модель управления временем достижения консенсуса в технических комитетах на основе регулярных цепей Маркова
We consider measuring the degree of homogeneity for preference-approval profiles which include the approval information for the alternatives as well as the rankings of them. A distance-based approach is followed to measure the disagreement for any given two preference-approvals. Under the condition that a proper metric is used, we propose a measure of consensus which is robust to some extensions of the ordinal framework. This paper also shows that there exists a limit for increasing the homogeneity level in a group of individuals by simply replicating their preference-approvals.
In this chapter questions such as “What is a good use of time?”, “How can one achieve satisfaction with their time?” and “How can ones relationship with time contribute to their well-being?” are raised and discussed with regard to empirical research on various aspects of positive psychology of time. This chapter differs from traditional ways of thinking about time in organisations in three substantial ways. First of all, contrary to the widespread self-help book based approach to time from the perspective of time management, this chapter reviews the existing empirical research on time use, focusing on the implications of this research for organizations and individuals. Secondly, it highlights the limitations of believing that time is infinitely stretchable and defined good time use as one that results in increased well-being, rather than productivity at the expense of well-being. Thirdly, although the work place is in the centre point of the chapter, it looks at time use from a broader perspective of life and work-leisure balance.
A range of evidence is considered, based on both objective and subjective time use studies suggesting specific measures to increase well-being through time use, first of all, at workplace, but also touching on other domains, such as media, leisure, etc. It is demonstrated that the studies of objective time use seem to be slightly less relevant, because the associations between time spent and well-being depend strongly on the person: what may be right for one, may be detrimental for the other. Some interventions, though, may be good for most people and beneficial on the large scale, such as introducing work time caps. Good time use results from choosing activities that help people to satisfy their basic needs and are directed at intrinsic goals (helping other people, establishing relationships, developing and growing as a person, maintaining health and balance in one’s life). A pathway to increase basic need satisfaction and, as a result, happiness associated with good time use, is by supporting autonomy: giving people more opportunities for choosing and working towards goals that are self-congruent and intrinsic, benefitting both oneself and society.
If you want to make beautiful music,
you must play the black and the white notes together.
Richard M. Nixon, the 37th President of USA
The problem of studying the achievement of consensus in social groups is related to the complexity of organizing such a study, especially for large groups, with more than five participants. In connection with the above, it is advisable to investigate the phenomenon of consensus in large social groups, using the modeling methodology.
The article presents the results of statistical modeling describing the dependence of the time to reach consensus on the number and authoritarianism of a social group members using two mathematical models of consensus achievement in a group based on the model proposed by DeGroot and model of the cellular automaton.
The main problems of attaining consensus under the settings of the proposed model during the development of consensus standards in technical committees on standardization were analyzed. It is shown that an increase in the number of social group members and their authoritarianism has an adverse impact on the time for reaching consensus and increases the disunity of the group.
A model of the cellular automaton modeling the achievement of consensus within the negotiation process has been were studied: the initial discrepancy between the opinions of the members of the group and the space of opinions of the members of the group. In particular, it is shown that if initially the views of the members of the group are radically different, then the process of reaching consensus will be as long as possible if one of the participants is absolutely authoritative. If initially the views of the members of the group are close, then the process of reaching consensus will also be as long as possible if both members of the group are absolutely compromise.
The authors discuss the differences between time management programs and time perspective coaching and explore the possibilities of applying Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the coaching process. Based on the analysis of an individual time perspective profile, the coach may choose from a range of interventions suggested in this chapter. Specific interventions focused on overcoming the drawbacks of past-negative and present-fatalistic outlooks on time, as well as fostering the advantages of future, present-hedonistic, and past-positive time perspectives are presented together with questions aimed to help clients in gaining a better understanding and new insights in each of the time perspective domains. A separate section discusses the potential of mindfulness interventions in fostering balanced time perspective.
The paper describes the main issues related to the provision of Russian industrial enterprises’ intensive development. The results of a research demonstrating the foreign and domestic experience in the application of various innovative methods of development companies. The methodical recommendations for the implementation of time management in the enterprise are proposed.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.