Рост продолжительности жизни в России 2000-х годов
After a long period of decline, life expectancy in Russia has substantially increased since 2004 to recent times. Thus, this is the longest period of health improvement that has been observed in the country since 1965. The study is a systematic analysis of this positive trend. We use decomposition techniques to determine the causes and age groups that account for the additional years of life gained between 2003 and 2012. Using the same method, the major components of the remaining gap between Russia and most developed countries in life expectancy are identified. Some new features of improvements of recent years in comparison with changes in mortality in the 1990s and early 2000s are revealed.
The accelerated reduction of infant mortality and reduced mortality from tuberculosis, diabetes and other avoidable causes may be associated with a general improvement in health care. However, the main components of the new growth in life expectancy are mostly attributable to the reduction in deaths from cardiovascular disease, alcohol-related conditions and violence. At older ages, especially significant was the decline in female mortality from cerebrovascular disease. The gap in the expected lifetime between Russia and most of the developed countries is still quite elevated, and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and many external causes remains at a record high.
The question, however, of whether such progress can be sustained remains an open one. Of particular concern is the noted recent reduction of federal budget expenditures on health.