The purpose of this paper is to examine manifestations, antecedents, and consequences of employees’ extra-role behaviour in Russian business organisations. The authors empirically identify four distinct types of extra-role behaviour: active prosocial, passive prosocial, oriented towards extra efforts at work, and challenge-oriented. The study is based on a sample of 112 employees from two organizations (manufacturing and IT). The analysis shows that organization-based management practices are stronger predictors of extra-role behaviors compared to respondents’ individual characteristics. The authors also found that the two types of extra-role behavior (‘passive prosocial’ and ‘oriented towards extra-efforts at work’), typically demonstrated by among by low-resource employees, seemingly result from poor management practices, and negatively influence on respondents’ job satisfaction and career promotions. In turn, high-resource employees tend to be engaged in active prosocial and change-oriented behaviors. These two types of extra-role behavior lead to higher work satisfaction and career success. The analysis enriches understanding of the nature of extra-role behavior in Russian organisations, its costs and benefits for organisations. It reveals the most effective types of extra-role behavior to be recommended for managerial implications.
Organizational culture as in Russia, and abroad evolves thanks to efforts of the leading representatives of departments of management of human resources and the heads responsible for domestic policy and procedures, seeking to meet the formed expectations of democratic and fair interaction between managers and their subordinates. The review of the management of complaints in the organizations consisting in effective consideration, the discontent shown by employees for the purpose of improvement organizational the practician and increases of level of trust to management and the organization in general is presented in the present article
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.