Католичество или протестантизм? Здоровье и благополучие пожилых людей различного вероисповедания в европейских странах
On the basis of an international survey, the article analyzes the health and well-being of the elderly (55+) of different religious background in 14 European countries. Religious affiliation and activity are shown to have an insignificant influence on the health of the elderly both within European countries on the whole and within Western and Eastern countries separately. It is concluded that country origin is more significant than religious affiliation and activity.
Upsurge of protest activities at the dawn of the first decade of this century coinsided with a new wave of political development. Protest can be associated with a new (the 5th ?) wave of democratization and to that effect with reshuffle of institutions and practices of democratic accountability. Conceptualization of protest may help to reshape democratic accountability. Still the cognitive scheme of protest remains unacknowledged by majority of protesters themselves. The article reconstructs notion of justification and enforcement of one’s rights dating back to Roman law and expressed by the terms provocatio and protestatio. Christian idea of Covenant and Testamentum enrooted appeal to higher authority for redress of grievances. The idea was further developed by Protestants. They employed trilateral cognitive scheme of two pleaders and an arbiter. Further revolutionary upheavals led to reduction of the scheme to binary (left-right) models. Present day discourses provide two models of protest: (1) binary schemata of non-conventional and obstinate protest, and (2) trinary schemata of appeal to outside arbiter, e.g. public opinion, international community etc. for restoration of violated norms. The inner forms and cultural implications of petition, demonstration and manifestation are vital for meaningful understanding of protest actions and to further reshaping democratic accountability.
Religious teachings have played a significant role in the development of human rights, but nowadays, they do not exert any serious influence on the latter. In recent decades, the major religions focus on developing their own human rights concepts which are compared to modern liberal theories. Such religious teachings differ in several relevant aspects. The beginnings of Buddhism and Protestantism do not reject the democratic and liberal understanding ofhuman rights, but the Orthodoxyand Islam focus on opposing their attitudes to such interpretation. The question as to the possibilityto take into account religious views within the framework of human rights legal theory remains open.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.