Квантитативные методы в диахронических корпусных исследованиях: конструкции с предикативами и дативным субъектом
The paper proposes new approaches to the problem of Russian dative subjects in predicative and adjective constructions. The core idea of the research is to study the distribution of dative subject constructions with predicative and adjective forms that potentially can be used in such constructions. The methodological novelty of the approach is manifested in the following aspects. First of all the object of the research is the choice between explication or omitting the dative subject in the construction. While usually the predicates are classified on the basis whether they can in principle be used with dative subject, I study the trends for explicit use of dative (or prepositional beneficiary arguments) among the “dative subject predicates”, and show that the frequency rates of real use of dative subjects can be very different with different predicates. Secondly I regard separately different morphological forms of the same dative subject lexeme (i.e. adjectives in full and short forms, comparative adjectives and predicatives) and show that they may also reveal different strategies with explicit dative subjects. Finally I compare data from the 18th and the 21st centuries and use hierarchical clustering to reveal some diachronic trends in the use of dative subjects. The research is based on quantitative study of the examples from the Russian National Corpus.