Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?
There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy quality problem may be left to enterprise-level thermoeconomic optimization.
The article discusses the features of energy service contracts as one of the types of state-business interaction in the form of a publicprivate partnership. The purpose of the article is to analyze the main problems accompanying the implementation of energy service contracts on the basis of a case analysis and to develop recommendations for those who are at the stage of concluding such agreements. The following causes of problems between the parties to the energy service contracts are highlighted: methodological, organizational and financial. The following recommendations are developed based on the experience of participation in forensic examinations:1) careful study of the methodology for calculating savings using energy audit;2) the method of calculating the economic effect should be an integral part of the energy service contract;3)careful management of documents in order to be able to begin to resolve the conflict in the pretrial order according to the Civil Code;4) the contractor must make sure that there are economic benefits based on detailed calculations of indicators such as payback period, net present value of the project, internal rate of return, which it is mandatory to compare with the cost of financial resources used in the project.
This paper proposes a method of allocation of grant funds within the scientific and academic groups. We consider the allocation process automation through the use of Internet technologies. The study was conducted on the basis of scientific and educational group «Theoretical Foundations of energy efficient wireless sensor networks», National Research University «Higher School of Economics».
A vocationally-oriented course on Physics with medico-biological direction is proposed in this book. The matters of application of physical methods for substances investigation are considered here in detail.
The book may ne helpful for students of medical and pharmaceutical institutes of higher education and colleges, chemical, biological and pharmaceutical faculties of universities, as well as for students of core classes and teachers of medico-biological specialties.
Energy efficiency in household sector has recently become an issue of pressing topicality according to the latest studies and reviews in this domain. The issue can be found in numerous publications of the renowned scientists of the past and nowadays it is still receiving a wide support. There are a number of circumstances connected with the emergence of this phenomenon. Firstly, energy consumption of households in Russia and UK is constantly growing. This is true for many other sectors in both countries as well as worldwide. The Statistical Review of World Energy released by British Petroleum in June 2013 states that global consumption of primary energy grew by 60% over the last 25 years and the growth is continuing. It is expected that by 2035 global consumption will grow by 41%. Secondly, energy strategies of both countries call switching to the path of innovative and energy-efficient development one of the main objectives of household sector development. The paper intends to draw attention towards the energy efficiency issue. The paper observes existing energy efficiency problems in household sector in Russia and United Kingdom and governmental programmes that serve to address them. It also considers the peculiarities of energy efficiency programmes of these countries. The paper shows the distinctive and similar features of legislation and policies in energy efficiency area in Russia and United Kingdom. The research reveals each country’s good practices in household sector that can be adopted for another country and can contribute to sector development.
The article studies the current Russian and world experience in the state policy in energy saving stimulation. The article analyses the latest changes in Russian legislation in this area. The paper underlines that a number of policy measures used abroad have not been yet implemented in Russia. The paper concludes that the study of foreign experience is extremely important as it helps to boost the transition to the energy-effective economy.
Improvement of the energy efficiency of a national economy greatly enhances energy security of the state, improves the environment and the quality of life of the population and contributes to the social and economic development of any country. Energy efficiency is often the least expensive means of meeting new energy demand. Governments of countries that contribute to increased investment in activities aimed at improving energy efficiency and implementing a set of government support measures that determine reduction in the energy intensity of GDP of the countries, significantly save budgetary funds, reduce dependence on energy imports and reduce environmental pollution. All that in combination leads to an improvement in the indicators of sustainable development not only of individual territories, but also of the national economy as a whole. Nevertheless, measures to improve energy efficiency still do not have the desired effect on a global scale, despite proven numerous advantages and potentials to be the largest resource to meet the growing demand for energy around the world.Energy service contracts are the actual energy saving instruments which have proved their success in many economically developed countries of the world. In Russia, the market for energy services is in the process of formation and is significantly inhibited by the negative impact from a number of groups of factors.
A method based on the spectral analysis of thermowave oscillations formed under the effect of radiation of lasers operated in a periodic pulsed mode is developed for investigating the state of the interface of multilayered systems. The method is based on high sensitivity of the shape of the oscillating component of the pyrometric signal to adhesion characteristics of the phase interface. The shape of the signal is quantitatively estimated using the correlation coefficient (for a film–interface system) and the transfer function (for multilayered specimens).
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.