Implementation of a permanent police function has become an urgent necessity in the XVIII century for the Russian Empire, this trend continued in the XIX century. In this article the author has set a goal to consider the organizational and legal bases of interaction of the police and the population laid down in the period of formation and development of absolutism in Russia, in the era of the reign of Emperor Alexander I. The contents of this article help us to reveal the major milestones in the development of law enforcement in the socio-political context of the formative period of the absolute monarchy in the Russian Empire. The basis of this study is an analysis of the legislation and regulations adopted from 1801 to 1805 as well as the modern historical and legal research. The legislation in the course of the reforms of Alexander I changed not only a regular police force in Russia, but the features of its interaction with the public. However, the board of each of the subsequent Russian emperors has different effects on the very structure of law enforcement, its functioning and bases of the interaction with the public.
In the article the analysis of the situation which developed in Russia at the beginning of the XX century and attempts of the imperial power to prevent the approaching catastrophe which were connected with the realization of the idea of representation of the people is given. The attitude of the last Russian emperor to the idea of formation of representation of the people is shown.
The article concerns the problem of the Russian absolutist monarchy of the XVIII - the beginning of XX-th centuries in a comparative perspective. The social function of absolutism consisted in national integration, cultural unification and social transformation of traditional society by using of legal and coercive measures. The crucial problem is the changing role of the bureaucracy which could be the main protagonist of reforms or, just the opposite – its main opponent. From this point of view the author summarizes positive and negative aspects of absolutist reforms making outlook on the comparative experience of other absolutist empires of Europe and Asia.