Bolivia es un país del centro de América del Sur, limitado al norte y al este por Brasil, al sudeste por Paraguay, al sur por Argentina y al oeste por Chile y Perú. Su superficie es de 1.098.581 km2. La capital constitucional es Sucre, mientras que la capital administrativa y el lugar de residencia del gobierno es La Paz.
The article deals with three constitutional projects of Francisco de Miranda, distinguished Venezuelan. It is devoted to analyzes of the characteristics of the project of 1798, based on the experience of British constitutional law and public law of Ancient Rome. Special attention is focused on provisions of the projects of 1801 and 1808: on temporary public power during the war of colonies for independence from Spain and on federal government after the liberation. F.Miranda used for these projects a constitutional experience of many countries. One of the sources of his intellectual reflection was the constitution of Ancient Rome, the most important elements of which were people`s assembleis and magistracy. These institutes were adopted by F.Miranda and creatively impleamented according to specific conditions of Ibero-America.
This article analyzes how approaches and methods of the anthropology of time are applied to the Iberian and Latin-American university studies. Though Hispanic scholars interpreted and discussed European and North-American works on anthropology of time, they came to analysis of temporal structures and age rates of academic life basing on regional and national traditions of university studies. The article observes both peculiarity of approaches in various research centers (e.g. Spanish research group «History of culture and universities Alsonso IX» and Mexican Institute of university and education studies) and problems of discipline organization of studies (i.e. separation of history of universities and history of education). University time is studied in bound of various research guidelines, i.e. history of symbolic spatial and temporal categories, history of everyday practices and their regulation, history of rituals. Hispanic sholars analyze problem of academic age-ing in prosopographic studies and in investigations dedicated to collective memory and gaps of continuity. Methods of anthropology of time are also applied to the research of the youth as constructed subject of university social and political life.
– Small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which main objective is to satisfy the basic needs of the entrepreneur, when geographically concentrated make up subsistence clusters. The purpose of this paper is to analyze collective efficiency in subsistence clusters as growth strategy and how is the process through which the relational capital and territorial proximity altogether improve performance of firms.
– The research uses partial least squares techniques applied to a sample of 113 SMEs of wood industry in Oberá, Argentina.
– SMEs in subsistence clusters can use relational capital and territory as resources to generate competitive advantages. These competitive advantages foster performance. In consequence, collective efficiency appears as growth strategy in subsistence SMEs.
– Data are cross-sectional and in a conjuncture of economy expansion, future research should monitor the sample of firms using panel data to assess the development of relations. Sample is in a particular region and sector and generalizations should be done carefully.
– SMEs probably should integrate and share industrial and business structures to develop systemic competitive advantages with a collective character. SMEs should leverage their spatial interaction to build trust and establish networks of cooperation that will be the source of their collective efficiency. These collaboration networks should base in the local knowledge.
– Subsistence SMEs have strong impact on the most disadvantaged areas in developing countries. Growth strategies to professionalize these SMEs will have a major impact on the endogenous development of those territories.
– The research provides a mechanism through which collective efficiency leads to better performance for subsistence SMEs.
The dictionary features popular vocabulary reflecting the peculiarities of today's Spanish language as spoken in Latin America. The dictionary includes both standard and colloquial expressions as well as vernacular and slang units.
Various forms of dictatorship have been a context in which SBS have been developing through most of the 20th century. Nazi and fascist regimes in Europe, Communist single-party states, military juntas in Latin America and elsewhere in the post-colonial world accompanied the crisis of tradition and development of modernity as an alternative to liberal democracy. Dictatorships have thoroughly affected the history of SBS pursuing a policy of repression and control and, sometimes, encouraging a growth of various social science disciplines. The lack of intellectual and institutional autonomy is generally endured, though to different degrees and in different aspects, by SBS under dictatorship.