Zwischen Ostrog und Petersburg: Die kirchenslavische Bibel im 16. – 18. Jh.
The article is dedicated to the linguistic features of the Didactic Gospel by Constantine the Presbyteros, who is also known as Constantine of Preslav or Constantine of Bregalnica. The earliest witness of the original text, which Constantine wrote down at the end of the 9th century in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, is the Old East Slavonic manuscript dating to the end of the 11th– beginning of the 12th centuries (this manuscript is sometimes dated to a later period). The manuscript is remarkable for its graphic and orthographic features characteristic only for the earliest Church Slavonic sources of East Slavonic provenance; these sources are dated to the 11th century or to the beginning of the 12th century. At the same time, the manuscript attests phonetic innovations caused by the initial stage of the loss of the jer-vowels, such as “new jat’” and the change of e into o. On the basis of the earliest manifestations of the change of e into o in the written sources, the author argues that this phonetic change took place in the southern part of the East Slavonic area and first of all in the prefinal syllable before the final jer in the absolute weak position. Phonetic and orthographic peculiarities of the East Slavonic witness of the Didactic Gospel testify to the southwest Balkan provenance of its South Slavonic protograph, which must have been a Cyrillic one. (On the basis of lexical data, the southwest Balkan origin of Constantine’s archetype was argued by the author elsewhere.) From the point of view of verbal morphology, the earliest witness of the Didactic Gospel seems to be one of the most archaic East Slavonic manuscripts, which is particularly testified by a number of forms of the root aorist. Special attention is devoted to the construction called “relativer Attributivkonnex” (Ch. Koch). It was discovered by scholars in a number of South Slavonic sources or in East Slavonic manuscripts which go back to the South Slavonic tradition, and is to be observed in the Didactic Gospel, too.
The article deals with the reflection of the Church Slavonic language and single church slavicisms in folkloric and parafolcoric (i. e. non-folkloric, but used in some folkloric rites) texts. Usually, slavicisms are deliberately or unwillingly distorted by performers who do not understand the liturgical language. Often, distortions completely desemantisize single lexemes or the entire church slavonic text, that becomes glossolalia. This does not confuse the performers, since it is believed that the sacred text should not and can not be fully understood. At the same time, there is another trend: slavicisms are being distorted with means of paronymic attraction. Words is filled with a new meaning according to a situation of texts performing or to a wider historical or cultural context. Thus, we have a twofold relation to the Church Slavonic: refusal to understand in favor of attributing them a sacred status or changing its meaning with a new actual one.
The author provides readers with the reconstruction of the earliest stages of textual history of one of the Church Slavonic liturgical chants.
The article contains commentary and critical edition of the Byzantine liturgical hymn for the Dormition of Theotokos.
The article discusses the main linguistic conceptions applied to Church Slavonic in the past and present; singles out binaristic approaches in opposition to vernaculars; gives an overview of the numerous varieties to be differentiated within the language (connected to regions, periods, functions, individuals, and groups); recalls the role of reconstruction in modern editions and the widely neglected construction devices used in early grammars and dictionaries; and refers to the possibility of including Church Slavonic as a model for comparative jundgements on diversity in the structural evolution of Slavonic languages.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.