О численности боярства в домонгольской Руси
The author of the article attempts at assessing the number of nobles (boyars) in pre-Mongol Rus’. He uses the data from non-narrative sources, first of all from the treaty of 944 between Rus’ und Byzamtium, and from those chronicle’s reports which indicate directly to numbers of boyars in certain local centers – these reports are coming back to the 13-14th centuries. He concludes that the ruling classes in the different polities on the territory of Rus’ during the 10-14th centuries (from the Dnieper Rus’ of the middle of the 10th century to independent princedoms-lands of the 12-14th centuries) consisted of no more than 20-30 persons. The number of the whole estate of boyars at the beginning of the 13th century was approx. 1500 persons (not numbering members of their families).
The author studies the rituals and rules in the relationship of kings and nobles in medieval Rus'. The key issues are if the nobles swore an oath to the kings when entreing their service and if the nolbles exercised the so called "right of departure" when leaving the kings' service. The author's approach is comparative. He uses the evidence on the vassal rituals and norms in medieval countries of Europe, first of all, in Scadinavia in the 11-13th centuries.
The book deals with some aspects of social and political history of medieval Rus' (the 9-13th centuries): its political and administrative structure, social makeup and functions of town assemblies (veche), relations of nobles (boyars) and princes (kings), decimal organization (chiefs of tens and hundreds). A variety of sources and methods is used, and in every single case origins and biases of any relevant sources have been analysed.
The volume is an hommage to the famous historian Vladimir A. Kuchkin on the occasion of his 80th birthday. His colleagues presented articles on history of Russia in the 10-17th centuries, including archeology, historical geography, linguistics etc.
The author explores the text of “The Legend of the Calling-in of the Varangians” in the oldest Rus’ian chronicle codices. He relies on the idea (proposed once by A. A. Shakhmatov), which considers the beginning part of the so-called Novgorod First Chronicle of younger redaction (N1Ch y.r.) as a compilation dating back to the 1090s and thus preceding the famous “Tale of By-Gone Years” (originated in the 1110s). The author concludes that the text of the “Legend” preserved in the N1Ch y.r. is older and more correct than the text in the codices containing “The Tale of By-Gone Years”. He demonstrates how the compiler(s) of “The Tale of By-Gone Years” revised the text preserved in the N1Ch y.r. changing its chronology, reconstructing the narrative, enriching it with additional data etc. He pays a special attention to the context of the “Legend” in the N1Ch y.r. and suggests a new understanding of its concept and content searching for analogies in the medieval historiographical works of the genre Origo gentis.
The author presents a history of the institute of pol’udie in Old Rus’ from the 10th to the mid 16th century and concludes that this institution had transformed depending on changing economic and financial conditions. Originally, pol’udie was gifts and food which population gave voluntarily to their leaders/rulers when they went round over a territory of a given “tribe”. Beginning at the early 12th century the pol’udie evolved into one tax collected in naturalia or money in favor of a prince or his agents or his beneficiaries. The poliud’e disappeared in the northeastern princedoms of Rus’ since they had been conquered by the Mongols and obliged to pay them a tribute in the mid-13th century.
This paper evaluates disparity between the regional center and regional periphery using the data on the components of population dynamics in low-level ATU for the period 1990-2002. It analyses migration outcomes for 10 Russian regions in terms of the remoteness from the center and also compares the difference between the regional centers and regional periphery when it comes to the indicators of natural and mechanical population decline.
The study aims to define the forms and makeup of the elite in the 10th and 11th century society of Rus’, and to identify those involved in making critical military and political decisions. The sources of the study include the early chronicle-writing, the 10th-century treaties between Rus’ and Byzantium, Russkaya Pravda (‘The Rus’ian Justice’), and others. The evidence on Rus’ is compared to that on similar early medieval European societies. Special attention is given to the groups which made the key elements of the Rus' elite in the 11th century - the nobility (boyars) and the corps of princes' military servants (otroki or grid').
Early polities are often called as tributary (from Latin tributum). It is a question of great importance but also of great difficulty which tributes (taxes) the Rus’ collected from the subjugated population in the 9-11th centuries. The oldest Rus’ian chronicle texts contain several references about an extraction of some taxes in favor of the Rus’, but these references are difficult to understand. The author interprets the chronicle reports with these references taking two approaches: 1) it is taken for granted that the chronicle preceding to “The Tale of Bygone Years” is preserved in the so-called Novgorod First Chronicle of Younger Redaction, and 2) the chronicle reports are compared with the evidence of non-Rus’ian origin (the treaties by Constantine Porphyrogentis, the Arabian geographers’ accounts from the 9-11th centuries etc.). The most important conclusions drawn by the author are: 1) the tribute rate matched to the “standards” common in Eastern Europe in the 9-11th centuries, and this was in fact a fur skin which corresponded in prize to 4-7 g silver, 2) the Rus’ian ruling class collected the tribute (dan’) during the yearly circuit around the subjugated territory, extracting also some naturalia for feeding as “gifts”; both the circuits and the naturalia were called as poliud’e, 3) the evidence on both the tribute rate and methods of extracting the tribute comes from different regions of Old Rus’ – from Novgorod to Kiev. This fact shows that the basic principles of tax system which the Rus’ applied to the subjugated territories were the same anywhere. These principles laid a foundation for the “tributary” dominance of the Rus’ in the 9-11th centuries.