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Of all publications in the section: 75
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Article
Данилевский И. Н., Тогоева О. И. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2013. № 6 (22).

he article deals with the results of the scientific project “Medieval written sources as historical and litterary texts: creators and readers”. This project aimed at analysis of the features of the individual process of the creation of the historical text (source) in the Middle Ages and Modern times. It also aimed at disclosure of the mechanism of functioning of the specific historical sources in their cultural environment (the author’s message and creation of the text, its subsistence and dissemination, its perception by the readers, its popularity or the lack of it, the importance of such a text in the creation and recovery of the sociocultural and intellectual needs of the epoch). The project participants stated as insufficient the positivist method that dominated all historic research for quite a long time and was based on the principle of direct and undistorted reflection of historic reality it the text. In the present project the historical sources were studied primarily with the use of textual criticism methods that allowed to determine and to use in the analysis not only the factual side of the information but also so called “commonplaces and platitudes” in the text, borrowings and concealed quotations, “toposes”, “wandering sujets”. The textual criticism methods also allowed to determine three types of the text information: the unique information, the verified one and the repeated one. The methods of genetic critics allowed to the projects participants to fully understand the history of creation of this or that historical and litterary source and to comprehend the intentions of its author which, undoubtedly, can make it easier to study and to analyze the ideas and the images that this or that author (as well as the readers of the text) considered the most appropriate for his (their) epoch.

Added: Nov 28, 2013
Article
Sharova A. V. ISTORIYA (“History”). The Journal of Education and Science . 2015. Vol. 6. No. 10 (43).
The problem of inference of the politics into the scholar’s communication and its influence on them examines in this article, based on a wide range of historical sources (correspondence and official documents) from the Archive of Russian Academy of Sciences (ARAN) and Russian State Archive of Postmodern History (RGANI). The main attention is paid to the contacts between Russian and British specialists in English medieval history. In the middle of the 20th century British and Soviet historians made serious attempts to overcome the ideological and state oppression and many times demonstrated mutual desire to defend the opportunity of international communication. © http://history.jes.su/s207987840001332-4-1-en
Added: Mar 9, 2016
Article
Krivushin I. ISTORIYA (“History”). The Journal of Education and Science . 2018. Vol. 9. No. 5. P. 1-18.

The article explores how Rwandan history and its pivotal events are interpreted by Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, one of the chief instigator and mastermind of the 1994 genocide. It argues that this interpretation is shaped entirely by Bagosora’s politicoideological goals and intentions. His approach is based on the binary black-andwhite ethnicized vision of national history and it is tainted by racial and ethnic prejudices. By viewing history in this way, Bagosora tries to justify the mass killing of the Tutsis in April–July 1994 and to absolve himself and other extremist Hutu leaders of responsibility for one of the greatest tragedies in the history of mankind. The historical arguments he developed and systematized have become the basis of all subsequent attempts to deny, minimize or justify the 1994 genocide.

Added: Jul 24, 2018
Article
Русанов А. В. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2016. №  6 (50). С. 1-21.

The theme of this article is the place of the university in the medieval urban space, in particular the case of the Portuguese studium generale, that was founded in Lisbon in 1288/1290 and then leaved it for Coimbra. Owing to the further numerous removals between those cities in the 14th century and the gaps of continuity provoked by this situation it’s possible to observe some unique aspects of the connection between conceptions of locus studii, their rhetoric and their realization. General case is observed in the context of common law texts and experience of other studia generalia. We can see two general concepts: the first – of the special academic district and the second which regards the whole city as common space of the university’s activities and privileges. Both of them were applied to the corporate law of so called “model” universities (e.g. Paris) and used the texts of jurist from Bologna in 13th – 15th centuries. As the result of the investigation we can observe how the privileged district conception became dominating in the sources of the corporate law of the Portuguese university. But in the first half of the 14th century its realization met various difficulties: ‘town and gown’ conflicts and clashes with other privileged social groups (court circle, officials), lack of consistent royal support. Only after the removal to Lisbon in 1377 academic corporation succeeded in fulfilling its program which proposed to create (literally – to re-create) the privileged district. So owing to the grow of the centralized royal jurisdiction that «washed out» and subjugated local, custom and municipal law, the university integrated to the legal and consequently topographic space of  Lisbon – and to incarnate its old rhetoric “dreams”.

Added: Feb 15, 2017
Article
Александрова М. А. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2014. № 6 (29).
Added: Dec 17, 2014
Article
Марей А. В. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2011. № 8.

In the article are reconstructed the sources of the law P.VII.1.3 from the “Siete Partidas” of Alphonse the Sage (1252 – 1284) and made some observations about legislative technics of the Castilian jurists. Author has affirmed that the legists of Alphonse X had used as a sources some fragments of book IX of Justinian Code, of book LXVIII of Justinian Digest and – perhaps – of book IX of Theodosian Code. Also has noted that  the Castilian legists, from one side, had used the Justinian Corpus without call its texts in question but, from another side, had done it very freely. The last is not usual for work of medieval jurists, according to classical historical conceptions.

Added: Jan 27, 2013
Article
Воеводский А. В. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2018. Т. 9. № 5. С. 1-13.

The publication of the documents of the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation is devoted to the history of closure of the consulate of Czechoslovakia in South Africa in 1963. These documents reflect the interactions between the USSR and its Eastern European ally related to politics in Africa. They demonstrate what sources of information on the situation in South Africa the USSR has possessed in the early 1960s. After 1956, when the Soviet consulate in Pretoria has been closed, Moscow did not have any direct contacts with South Africa any more. Therefore, any additional sources of information on the situation in South Africa were of particular importance. The documents reveal that the issue of the consulate closure was decided at the highest level of the Soviet party system. This episode characterizes the complexity of relations of the Cold War period, both between irreconcilable rivals, within the socialist camp itself and its allies

Added: Sep 14, 2018
Article
Цыганова Л. А., Маннин А. А. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2018. Т. 9. № 2(66).
Added: Mar 1, 2018
Article
Дмитриев А. Н. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2015. № 2.
Added: Feb 18, 2015
Article
Левин Ф. Е. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2016. Т. 7. № 2.

This article reviews the prevailing tendencies in the interpretation of the works by the figures of the Irish Enlightenment: Geoffrey Keating, John Lynch, Charles O’Conor, Sylvester O’Halloran, and Charles Vallancey. The researchers of the works of the aforementioned authors can be divided into two groups depending on the angle of their approach to the issues: those who looked into ethnic discourses (first approach) and those who looked into ethnic groups (second approach) in the XVII—XVIII centuries. As a result of the review of contemporary historiography, Ireland is represented as a network of various discourses which are still to be reconsidered in their full diversity. 

Added: Oct 1, 2018
Article
Марей Е. С. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2017. Т. 8. № 6(60).

This articles is dedicated to the analysis of three letters from the Register epistolarum of the Pope Gregory I of Great (590–604), which describe the case of the bishops Januarius and Stefan (XIII. 46, 47, 49). Letter XIII.46 is an instruction to the papal defensor John, sent in 603 by the pope to Byzantine Spain to investigate how and under what circumstances were convicted the bishops Januarius and Stefan several years ago. According to these letters we can learn that the bishops were removed from office and sent into exile by the Byzantine governor named Komitiol. The reason for their disgrace probably lies in their close connection with the bishops of the Kingdom of Toledo, the enemy of Byzantine Empire. The letter XIII.47 is the John’s retourn: we learn that the bishops were not only subjected to a completely unjust sentence, but the whole procedure of the trial was conducted with numerous violations. Finally, by letter XIII.49, which are the subtitle Exemplum legis, Gregory dismissed the accusation from Januarius and Stefan, and imposed a penance on their offenders and excommunicated them. The verdict also affected the successor of Komitiol (who had perished by that time): he had to return to Januarius the confiscated property. To confirm the legitimacy of his decisions, Gregory quoted in the letter fragments of 123-th Novellae by Justinian, as well as some of the constitutions of the Code. This is the only case of direct appeal of the pope to the legislation of Justinian, and generally to the norms of secular law. Partly the literal quoting of fragments of the Code can be explained by lacunae in the canon law of the VI century, which Gregory tried to close with the imperial legislation. However, this explanation is not exhausted. Gregory cited the laws though carefully (preserving the inscription and the subscript, noting the abbreviations, etc.), but still selectively: he leaved behind the scenes those fragments that could not justify his interference and his decision. We do not know exactly, if Corpus iuris civilis was known, how it was applied, so it is probable that the pope's addressees did not have the very books of the Codex and Novellae in their hands, and Gregory had no choice but to quote them. With the support of the norms of the imperial legislation Gregory the Great could defend his point of view in a correspondence dispute with the governor of Byzantine Spain, having taken a decision that was contrary to his interests.

Added: Dec 8, 2017
Article
Волосюк О. В. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2017. Т. 8. № 10(64).
Added: Feb 5, 2018
Article
Земляков М. В. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2017. Т. 8. № 6 (60).

This  article  deals  with  the  problem  of  influences  exerted  by  ancient  and  medieval legal  and  narrative  sources  on  the  Frankish  law  during  the  reign  of  king  Clovis (481–511).  This  issue  hadn’t  sufficient  attention  in  contemporary  scholarly  works. Among  the  sources,  which  could  be  available  for  Frankish  officials  and  lawyers composed  the  Laws  of  Salian  Franks  (Lex  Salica),  authors  explains  both  the Germanic  sources  (such  as  Code  of  Euric  and  Burgundian  laws),  and  late  Roman codes  been  in  use  in Gaul  territory  in  the  5th  –  6th  centuries  (Breviary  of Alaric  and some  legal  compilations),  and  even  Celtic  sources  (The  Welsh  canons)  and  nonlegal  texts  (Exodus). Using  the  textual  critisism,  scholar  proves  that  the  biggest volume of textual adoptions in Lex Salica was a result of the long-time relations and collisions  between  the  Franks  and  their  southern  neighbours  –  Burgundians  and Visigoths.  Influence  of  the  late  Roman  legal  culture  on  the  Laws  of  Salian  Franks was  very  close,  namely  it  ends  on  the  establishing  of  slave  rank  as  “instrumentum vocale”  (cattle  with  voice).  This  state  was  a  feature  of  all  late  Roman  codes  and compilations  based  on  it  (such  as  Theodosian  Code,  Breviary  of  Alaric,  Code  of Justinian). The  profoundest  influence  of  the  Burgundian,  Visigothic  and  (in  a  less degree)  late  Roman  laws  on  the  Lex  Salica  was  revealed  in  those  titles,  which  are concerned  to  the  social  structure  in  Northern  Gaul  of  the  end  of  5th  –  early  6th centuries.  Firstly,  it  refers  to  the  position  of  slaves  in  estate,  degree  of  their  legal capability  and  participation  of  business  with  free  persons,  compensation  for  their injuries  and  death.  Then,  some  legal  procedures  of  Burgundian  laws  (for  example, the  order  of  returning  of  the  person  sold  into  slavery  from  abroad,  paying  of  pledge for  a  slave,  which  had  been  subjected  to  tortures  on  charges  of  third  party)  also  had been  put  in  the  Laws  of  Salian  Franks.  Finally,  the  influence  of  the  Old  Testament (Exodus)  and  the  so-called  “Welsh  canons”  (Canones  Wallici)  can  be  find  in  the case of sale and division of slave accused in the murder of servant of another person between their owners.

Added: Mar 24, 2018
Article
Графова Мария Александровна Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2016. Т. 7. № 9 (53).

The article deals with the political, theological and cultural dialogue between papal Rome and Imperial Constantinople. The period of 6-8th centuries is the one of Byzantine domination in Rome, and a number of Roman frescoes belong to this period, whose style and iconography give insights into the theological and political polemics, or into the cultural influence of early Byzantine art on the local tradition. Art works are rarely used or not used at all as sources in the study of relations between the two capitals and iconoclasm. This study can helpfully contribute to the overall research view on the subject

Added: Oct 12, 2017
Article
Гласер М. А. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2015. Т. 6. № 7(40). С. 8.

The article examines the phenomenon of human security in the context of the methodology of history as an academic discipline. The definitions of traditional and nontraditional threats and dangers are suggested, the subject of matter is examined from the angle of security as a political concept at all. In the article the latter is interpreted as a basis for regulating the status of violence. Considered the genesis of the logic of the evolution and nature of humanitarian security. It is shown that after the Cold War a broad interpretation of security, was formed, it is based on mutual trust of states and on international law, which has revealed new perspectives for Security Studies, and led to the emergence of the concept of humanitarian security. The sovereignty of the individual and the state sovereignty emerged from the equilibrium state. Formulated understanding of humanitarian security in its pure form as a protection against existential threats (human security, safety of local worlds and communities, security interests of the person) and “mixed”: economic, food, health and so forth. In its “mixed” form humanitarian security is transformed into a humanitarian - social one. It is shown that for the historical reconstruction of the evolution of the concept of humanitarian security can be effective the principles of the history of concepts (Begriffsgeschichte) of Reinhard Koselleck, the theory of conceptual changes in the historicity of thought of Quentin Skinner, approaches of the socio-cultural (anthropological) history, history from below, local history, the history of the body, microhistory, etc. It opens up the new perspectives by political scientists to analyze the problems of humanitarian and human security.

Added: Oct 2, 2018
Article
Гагарина Д. А., Корниенко С. И., Поврозник Н. Г. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2016. Т. 7. № 51. С. 1-12.

History-oriented systems are becoming more and more important element of the information environment of historical science and education. The article deals with the status and trends of history-oriented systems on the level of concepts, development approaches, content, sources, and other parameters. Several types of systems are characterized. Special attention is paid to the research potential of the resources and their means of instrumental support for various types of historical researches. The electronic catalog "History-oriented information systems" (digitalhistory.ru) was used for the research. The catalog contains more than 800 Russian and foreign resources created in 1990—2015 and about 500 publications.

Added: Aug 12, 2018
Article
Волосюк О. В. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2011.
Added: Feb 27, 2015
Article
Репина Л. П. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2013. № 2.
Added: Jan 22, 2014
Article
Данилевский И. Н. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2013. № 6 (22).

The article deals with the problem of the reconstruction of historical facts as the main task of a historian. The author sees the historical reconstruction based on the various types of information (the unique information, the verified one and the repeated one) as a description the most close to the historical reality.

Added: Nov 28, 2013
Article
Савельева О. О. Электронный научно-образовательный журнал "История". 2012. № 1(9). С. 22-23.

In this article the author addresses the issue of advertisement creating a special time display that does not portray the actual everyday realty. Instead, it shows people's perception of their desired reality in a given era. One of such 'desired realities' is the historical past. The paper offers a classification of such references to 'historic motives' in creation of advertising content. Multiple examples are analysed.

Added: Nov 22, 2012