he article deals with the results of the scientific project “Medieval written sources as historical and litterary texts: creators and readers”. This project aimed at analysis of the features of the individual process of the creation of the historical text (source) in the Middle Ages and Modern times. It also aimed at disclosure of the mechanism of functioning of the specific historical sources in their cultural environment (the author’s message and creation of the text, its subsistence and dissemination, its perception by the readers, its popularity or the lack of it, the importance of such a text in the creation and recovery of the sociocultural and intellectual needs of the epoch). The project participants stated as insufficient the positivist method that dominated all historic research for quite a long time and was based on the principle of direct and undistorted reflection of historic reality it the text. In the present project the historical sources were studied primarily with the use of textual criticism methods that allowed to determine and to use in the analysis not only the factual side of the information but also so called “commonplaces and platitudes” in the text, borrowings and concealed quotations, “toposes”, “wandering sujets”. The textual criticism methods also allowed to determine three types of the text information: the unique information, the verified one and the repeated one. The methods of genetic critics allowed to the projects participants to fully understand the history of creation of this or that historical and litterary source and to comprehend the intentions of its author which, undoubtedly, can make it easier to study and to analyze the ideas and the images that this or that author (as well as the readers of the text) considered the most appropriate for his (their) epoch.
The article explores how Rwandan history and its pivotal events are interpreted by Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, one of the chief instigator and mastermind of the 1994 genocide. It argues that this interpretation is shaped entirely by Bagosora’s politicoideological goals and intentions. His approach is based on the binary black-andwhite ethnicized vision of national history and it is tainted by racial and ethnic prejudices. By viewing history in this way, Bagosora tries to justify the mass killing of the Tutsis in April–July 1994 and to absolve himself and other extremist Hutu leaders of responsibility for one of the greatest tragedies in the history of mankind. The historical arguments he developed and systematized have become the basis of all subsequent attempts to deny, minimize or justify the 1994 genocide.
The theme of this article is the place of the university in the medieval urban space, in particular the case of the Portuguese studium generale, that was founded in Lisbon in 1288/1290 and then leaved it for Coimbra. Owing to the further numerous removals between those cities in the 14th century and the gaps of continuity provoked by this situation it’s possible to observe some unique aspects of the connection between conceptions of locus studii, their rhetoric and their realization. General case is observed in the context of common law texts and experience of other studia generalia. We can see two general concepts: the first – of the special academic district and the second which regards the whole city as common space of the university’s activities and privileges. Both of them were applied to the corporate law of so called “model” universities (e.g. Paris) and used the texts of jurist from Bologna in 13th – 15th centuries. As the result of the investigation we can observe how the privileged district conception became dominating in the sources of the corporate law of the Portuguese university. But in the first half of the 14th century its realization met various difficulties: ‘town and gown’ conflicts and clashes with other privileged social groups (court circle, officials), lack of consistent royal support. Only after the removal to Lisbon in 1377 academic corporation succeeded in fulfilling its program which proposed to create (literally – to re-create) the privileged district. So owing to the grow of the centralized royal jurisdiction that «washed out» and subjugated local, custom and municipal law, the university integrated to the legal and consequently topographic space of Lisbon – and to incarnate its old rhetoric “dreams”.
In the article are reconstructed the sources of the law P.VII.1.3 from the “Siete Partidas” of Alphonse the Sage (1252 – 1284) and made some observations about legislative technics of the Castilian jurists. Author has affirmed that the legists of Alphonse X had used as a sources some fragments of book IX of Justinian Code, of book LXVIII of Justinian Digest and – perhaps – of book IX of Theodosian Code. Also has noted that the Castilian legists, from one side, had used the Justinian Corpus without call its texts in question but, from another side, had done it very freely. The last is not usual for work of medieval jurists, according to classical historical conceptions.
The publication of the documents of the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation is devoted to the history of closure of the consulate of Czechoslovakia in South Africa in 1963. These documents reflect the interactions between the USSR and its Eastern European ally related to politics in Africa. They demonstrate what sources of information on the situation in South Africa the USSR has possessed in the early 1960s. After 1956, when the Soviet consulate in Pretoria has been closed, Moscow did not have any direct contacts with South Africa any more. Therefore, any additional sources of information on the situation in South Africa were of particular importance. The documents reveal that the issue of the consulate closure was decided at the highest level of the Soviet party system. This episode characterizes the complexity of relations of the Cold War period, both between irreconcilable rivals, within the socialist camp itself and its allies
This article reviews the prevailing tendencies in the interpretation of the works by the figures of the Irish Enlightenment: Geoffrey Keating, John Lynch, Charles O’Conor, Sylvester O’Halloran, and Charles Vallancey. The researchers of the works of the aforementioned authors can be divided into two groups depending on the angle of their approach to the issues: those who looked into ethnic discourses (first approach) and those who looked into ethnic groups (second approach) in the XVII—XVIII centuries. As a result of the review of contemporary historiography, Ireland is represented as a network of various discourses which are still to be reconsidered in their full diversity.
This articles is dedicated to the analysis of three letters from the Register epistolarum of the Pope Gregory I of Great (590–604), which describe the case of the bishops Januarius and Stefan (XIII. 46, 47, 49). Letter XIII.46 is an instruction to the papal defensor John, sent in 603 by the pope to Byzantine Spain to investigate how and under what circumstances were convicted the bishops Januarius and Stefan several years ago. According to these letters we can learn that the bishops were removed from office and sent into exile by the Byzantine governor named Komitiol. The reason for their disgrace probably lies in their close connection with the bishops of the Kingdom of Toledo, the enemy of Byzantine Empire. The letter XIII.47 is the John’s retourn: we learn that the bishops were not only subjected to a completely unjust sentence, but the whole procedure of the trial was conducted with numerous violations. Finally, by letter XIII.49, which are the subtitle Exemplum legis, Gregory dismissed the accusation from Januarius and Stefan, and imposed a penance on their offenders and excommunicated them. The verdict also affected the successor of Komitiol (who had perished by that time): he had to return to Januarius the confiscated property. To confirm the legitimacy of his decisions, Gregory quoted in the letter fragments of 123-th Novellae by Justinian, as well as some of the constitutions of the Code. This is the only case of direct appeal of the pope to the legislation of Justinian, and generally to the norms of secular law. Partly the literal quoting of fragments of the Code can be explained by lacunae in the canon law of the VI century, which Gregory tried to close with the imperial legislation. However, this explanation is not exhausted. Gregory cited the laws though carefully (preserving the inscription and the subscript, noting the abbreviations, etc.), but still selectively: he leaved behind the scenes those fragments that could not justify his interference and his decision. We do not know exactly, if Corpus iuris civilis was known, how it was applied, so it is probable that the pope's addressees did not have the very books of the Codex and Novellae in their hands, and Gregory had no choice but to quote them. With the support of the norms of the imperial legislation Gregory the Great could defend his point of view in a correspondence dispute with the governor of Byzantine Spain, having taken a decision that was contrary to his interests.
This article deals with the problem of influences exerted by ancient and medieval legal and narrative sources on the Frankish law during the reign of king Clovis (481–511). This issue hadn’t sufficient attention in contemporary scholarly works. Among the sources, which could be available for Frankish officials and lawyers composed the Laws of Salian Franks (Lex Salica), authors explains both the Germanic sources (such as Code of Euric and Burgundian laws), and late Roman codes been in use in Gaul territory in the 5th – 6th centuries (Breviary of Alaric and some legal compilations), and even Celtic sources (The Welsh canons) and nonlegal texts (Exodus). Using the textual critisism, scholar proves that the biggest volume of textual adoptions in Lex Salica was a result of the long-time relations and collisions between the Franks and their southern neighbours – Burgundians and Visigoths. Influence of the late Roman legal culture on the Laws of Salian Franks was very close, namely it ends on the establishing of slave rank as “instrumentum vocale” (cattle with voice). This state was a feature of all late Roman codes and compilations based on it (such as Theodosian Code, Breviary of Alaric, Code of Justinian). The profoundest influence of the Burgundian, Visigothic and (in a less degree) late Roman laws on the Lex Salica was revealed in those titles, which are concerned to the social structure in Northern Gaul of the end of 5th – early 6th centuries. Firstly, it refers to the position of slaves in estate, degree of their legal capability and participation of business with free persons, compensation for their injuries and death. Then, some legal procedures of Burgundian laws (for example, the order of returning of the person sold into slavery from abroad, paying of pledge for a slave, which had been subjected to tortures on charges of third party) also had been put in the Laws of Salian Franks. Finally, the influence of the Old Testament (Exodus) and the so-called “Welsh canons” (Canones Wallici) can be find in the case of sale and division of slave accused in the murder of servant of another person between their owners.
The article deals with the political, theological and cultural dialogue between papal Rome and Imperial Constantinople. The period of 6-8th centuries is the one of Byzantine domination in Rome, and a number of Roman frescoes belong to this period, whose style and iconography give insights into the theological and political polemics, or into the cultural influence of early Byzantine art on the local tradition. Art works are rarely used or not used at all as sources in the study of relations between the two capitals and iconoclasm. This study can helpfully contribute to the overall research view on the subject
The article examines the phenomenon of human security in the context of the methodology of history as an academic discipline. The definitions of traditional and nontraditional threats and dangers are suggested, the subject of matter is examined from the angle of security as a political concept at all. In the article the latter is interpreted as a basis for regulating the status of violence. Considered the genesis of the logic of the evolution and nature of humanitarian security. It is shown that after the Cold War a broad interpretation of security, was formed, it is based on mutual trust of states and on international law, which has revealed new perspectives for Security Studies, and led to the emergence of the concept of humanitarian security. The sovereignty of the individual and the state sovereignty emerged from the equilibrium state. Formulated understanding of humanitarian security in its pure form as a protection against existential threats (human security, safety of local worlds and communities, security interests of the person) and “mixed”: economic, food, health and so forth. In its “mixed” form humanitarian security is transformed into a humanitarian - social one. It is shown that for the historical reconstruction of the evolution of the concept of humanitarian security can be effective the principles of the history of concepts (Begriffsgeschichte) of Reinhard Koselleck, the theory of conceptual changes in the historicity of thought of Quentin Skinner, approaches of the socio-cultural (anthropological) history, history from below, local history, the history of the body, microhistory, etc. It opens up the new perspectives by political scientists to analyze the problems of humanitarian and human security.
History-oriented systems are becoming more and more important element of the information environment of historical science and education. The article deals with the status and trends of history-oriented systems on the level of concepts, development approaches, content, sources, and other parameters. Several types of systems are characterized. Special attention is paid to the research potential of the resources and their means of instrumental support for various types of historical researches. The electronic catalog "History-oriented information systems" (digitalhistory.ru) was used for the research. The catalog contains more than 800 Russian and foreign resources created in 1990—2015 and about 500 publications.
The article deals with the problem of the reconstruction of historical facts as the main task of a historian. The author sees the historical reconstruction based on the various types of information (the unique information, the verified one and the repeated one) as a description the most close to the historical reality.
In this article the author addresses the issue of advertisement creating a special time display that does not portray the actual everyday realty. Instead, it shows people's perception of their desired reality in a given era. One of such 'desired realities' is the historical past. The paper offers a classification of such references to 'historic motives' in creation of advertising content. Multiple examples are analysed.