he article deals with the results of the scientific project “Medieval written sources as historical and litterary texts: creators and readers”. This project aimed at analysis of the features of the individual process of the creation of the historical text (source) in the Middle Ages and Modern times. It also aimed at disclosure of the mechanism of functioning of the specific historical sources in their cultural environment (the author’s message and creation of the text, its subsistence and dissemination, its perception by the readers, its popularity or the lack of it, the importance of such a text in the creation and recovery of the sociocultural and intellectual needs of the epoch). The project participants stated as insufficient the positivist method that dominated all historic research for quite a long time and was based on the principle of direct and undistorted reflection of historic reality it the text. In the present project the historical sources were studied primarily with the use of textual criticism methods that allowed to determine and to use in the analysis not only the factual side of the information but also so called “commonplaces and platitudes” in the text, borrowings and concealed quotations, “toposes”, “wandering sujets”. The textual criticism methods also allowed to determine three types of the text information: the unique information, the verified one and the repeated one. The methods of genetic critics allowed to the projects participants to fully understand the history of creation of this or that historical and litterary source and to comprehend the intentions of its author which, undoubtedly, can make it easier to study and to analyze the ideas and the images that this or that author (as well as the readers of the text) considered the most appropriate for his (their) epoch.
The article examines the international and Russian experience in teaching and learning digital humanities. Existing formats such as online courses, university courses, minors and programs, summer schools are identified and analyzed, examples are given. The structures that lead educational activities are described. In addition, the article proposes a methodology for constructing a Russian-language course and teaching digital humanities, describes the concept of the "Learning Digital Humanities" platform and the first experience of its use.
The article deals with the most important fragment of the History of the Francs of Gregory of Tours, which is sometimes called the “oldest treaty of France”. It is an agreement concluded by the Merovingian kings Gunthram and Childebert II in Andelot in 587. The singularity of this pact lies in the facts that it was added in an unusual context of the early medieval chronicle and is found nowhere else in collections of law of the 6th century. Discovering the similarities between the form and content of the treaty in Andelot, acts in public and private forms of the Middle Ages, the author applies the analysis of formulary to the text of the annual record of the History of the Francs and compares it with the capitularies of the Carolingian era. Deriving the clauses of the protocol, the operative part (corpus) and the eschatocol from the entire text one can make an assumption that Gregory of Tours actually was present at the time of its compilation and attestation, and also had the copy at the time of writing the History of the Francs.
The article explores how Rwandan history and its pivotal events are interpreted by Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, one of the chief instigator and mastermind of the 1994 genocide. It argues that this interpretation is shaped entirely by Bagosora’s politicoideological goals and intentions. His approach is based on the binary black-andwhite ethnicized vision of national history and it is tainted by racial and ethnic prejudices. By viewing history in this way, Bagosora tries to justify the mass killing of the Tutsis in April–July 1994 and to absolve himself and other extremist Hutu leaders of responsibility for one of the greatest tragedies in the history of mankind. The historical arguments he developed and systematized have become the basis of all subsequent attempts to deny, minimize or justify the 1994 genocide.
The theme of this article is the place of the university in the medieval urban space, in particular the case of the Portuguese studium generale, that was founded in Lisbon in 1288/1290 and then leaved it for Coimbra. Owing to the further numerous removals between those cities in the 14th century and the gaps of continuity provoked by this situation it’s possible to observe some unique aspects of the connection between conceptions of locus studii, their rhetoric and their realization. General case is observed in the context of common law texts and experience of other studia generalia. We can see two general concepts: the first – of the special academic district and the second which regards the whole city as common space of the university’s activities and privileges. Both of them were applied to the corporate law of so called “model” universities (e.g. Paris) and used the texts of jurist from Bologna in 13th – 15th centuries. As the result of the investigation we can observe how the privileged district conception became dominating in the sources of the corporate law of the Portuguese university. But in the first half of the 14th century its realization met various difficulties: ‘town and gown’ conflicts and clashes with other privileged social groups (court circle, officials), lack of consistent royal support. Only after the removal to Lisbon in 1377 academic corporation succeeded in fulfilling its program which proposed to create (literally – to re-create) the privileged district. So owing to the grow of the centralized royal jurisdiction that «washed out» and subjugated local, custom and municipal law, the university integrated to the legal and consequently topographic space of Lisbon – and to incarnate its old rhetoric “dreams”.
In the article are reconstructed the sources of the law P.VII.1.3 from the “Siete Partidas” of Alphonse the Sage (1252 – 1284) and made some observations about legislative technics of the Castilian jurists. Author has affirmed that the legists of Alphonse X had used as a sources some fragments of book IX of Justinian Code, of book LXVIII of Justinian Digest and – perhaps – of book IX of Theodosian Code. Also has noted that the Castilian legists, from one side, had used the Justinian Corpus without call its texts in question but, from another side, had done it very freely. The last is not usual for work of medieval jurists, according to classical historical conceptions.
The article analyses African studies at the Communist University of Eastern Toilers, one of the Schools of the Communist International. On the basis of archival material, the author describes the administrative structure of Africanist departments of the University and analyses contents of courses which were offered to African students. The article describes students’ everyday life in Moscow and the problems which they had to face, from spying and secrecy to bad food. It goes on to describe how students themselves were studied at the University, what sort of assessments they earned, and how these assessments could influence their future political lives. The author analyses in detail the activities of the African Laboratory and assesses the research by its staff.
The publication of the documents of the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation is devoted to the history of closure of the consulate of Czechoslovakia in South Africa in 1963. These documents reflect the interactions between the USSR and its Eastern European ally related to politics in Africa. They demonstrate what sources of information on the situation in South Africa the USSR has possessed in the early 1960s. After 1956, when the Soviet consulate in Pretoria has been closed, Moscow did not have any direct contacts with South Africa any more. Therefore, any additional sources of information on the situation in South Africa were of particular importance. The documents reveal that the issue of the consulate closure was decided at the highest level of the Soviet party system. This episode characterizes the complexity of relations of the Cold War period, both between irreconcilable rivals, within the socialist camp itself and its allies
This article reviews the prevailing tendencies in the interpretation of the works by the figures of the Irish Enlightenment: Geoffrey Keating, John Lynch, Charles O’Conor, Sylvester O’Halloran, and Charles Vallancey. The researchers of the works of the aforementioned authors can be divided into two groups depending on the angle of their approach to the issues: those who looked into ethnic discourses (first approach) and those who looked into ethnic groups (second approach) in the XVII—XVIII centuries. As a result of the review of contemporary historiography, Ireland is represented as a network of various discourses which are still to be reconsidered in their full diversity.
In the article is analysing the conception of good and bad deception and the different disciplinary regimes of the fraud described in the Siete Partidas of Alphonse the Wise (1252—1284). The author stresses the point that the lies were permitted only for physical persons meanwhile the political entities (such as a people or a king in his relations with the people) would not lie. That can be explained by the different discursive strategies used by the authors of the Siete Partidas: the laws of the Seventh Partida as laws about chivalry (Part. II.21) were composed by jurists and the norms about a King and his people the theologists had written. For making this analysis more complete in the article, the author gives a brief introduction to the history of the juridical and theological discourses about the lie. He shows the evolution of the interpretation of the concept of the deception from the Late Antiquity to the Law Middle Ages. The author stresses that the Augustinian conception of the lie was the most influent until, at least, a middle 13th century.
The article considers the doctrine concerning the national question in the work of the Juridical Council of the Provisional Government. The Juridical Council was established as a governmental body of legal expertise, which considered bills in the legislative system of the Provisional Government. During 1917 after the February revolution Juridical Council had faced up to longstanding national problem in Finland and Ukraine. To cope with secessionists tendencies lawyers of the Juridical Council offered a doctrine of cultural self-determination and autonomy with no political independence.
The article reviews a history of the internment camp Rieucros in France (1939—1942), which had emerged as other internment camps after the Spanish Republican Army’s defeat and massive escape of the combatants and civilians from Catalonia to France through Pyrenees. The Rieucro’s camp specificity consisted in keeping only women and children. Basing on the documental collections of the Russian State Archive of Social-Political History (RGASPI), the authors put together informations about total number of internees, life conditions and activities in the internment camp before and after 1942 (when the camp was moved from Rieucros to another camp in Brens). As the RGASPI documents on Rieucros Camp stay little known, the article includes some attached supplements in French, Russian and German (some previously unpublished primary sources with important testimonies of the internees).
The article gives an attempt to uncover the legal background of extraordinary actions related to Theodore, the pretender to the metropolitan see of Vladimir-on-Klyazma, who was eventually given a derogatory nickname, Theodorets. A Greek presbyter (most probably), once deposed or for some other reason deproved from a church he was assigned to, he either acquired the status of the hypopsephios of Souzdal, or even was actually consecrated as a bishop by Klim Smolyatich. However, despite all attempts of prince Andrey Bogolyubsky to officially install him as a Metropolitan of Vladimir, Theodore’s canonical status was never recognized neither by Constantine II, Metropolitan of Kiev, nor by the then Patriarch of Constantinople, Luke Chrysoberges. Both of the just mentioned Greek hierarchs denied Theodore’s legitimacy and blamed him. Their reasons included his active role in disputes concerning the new fasting rules, introduced by the representatives of the reformed Byzantine monasticism of the time. When prince Andrey realized that his plan to create a Metropolitan see in Vladimir has failed, he decided to send Theodore to Kiev in order to receive proper episcopal consecration from Metropolitan Constantine II. Theodore responded by a refusal to obey, and tried to demonstrate his power instead, blatantly closing all church buildings in Vladimir. In the end, Andrey handed Theodore over to the Metropolitan’s court. Metropolitan Constantine II decided to sue Theodore according the norms of the Byzantine civil law (obviously, considering him as a Byzantine citizen), and since the charges against Theodore included heresy, he was condemned to brutal physical injuries and, finally, death. Afterwards the body of the unsuccessful contender to a metropolitan throne was thrown to the dogs, in order to get a symbolical closure on his story.
The article provides an overview of the wide range of the Anglo-Saxon and Latin terminology concerning the various ranks of the freedom and dependence of English peasantry in the late 9th - 11th centuries. Detailed analysis based on the studying of English law codes, land inventories and charters is intended to describe the main social categories and classes of the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman peasantry. Revealing the level of wealth, legal and ethnic characteristics of particular groups of English manor of the 9th-11th centuries, it depicts the progressive unification of social statuses and ranks at the turn of the 10th-11th centuries and the division of farmers and land holders in England into the dependent and free peasantry in the second half of the 11th century.
This articles is dedicated to the analysis of three letters from the Register epistolarum of the Pope Gregory I of Great (590–604), which describe the case of the bishops Januarius and Stefan (XIII. 46, 47, 49). Letter XIII.46 is an instruction to the papal defensor John, sent in 603 by the pope to Byzantine Spain to investigate how and under what circumstances were convicted the bishops Januarius and Stefan several years ago. According to these letters we can learn that the bishops were removed from office and sent into exile by the Byzantine governor named Komitiol. The reason for their disgrace probably lies in their close connection with the bishops of the Kingdom of Toledo, the enemy of Byzantine Empire. The letter XIII.47 is the John’s retourn: we learn that the bishops were not only subjected to a completely unjust sentence, but the whole procedure of the trial was conducted with numerous violations. Finally, by letter XIII.49, which are the subtitle Exemplum legis, Gregory dismissed the accusation from Januarius and Stefan, and imposed a penance on their offenders and excommunicated them. The verdict also affected the successor of Komitiol (who had perished by that time): he had to return to Januarius the confiscated property. To confirm the legitimacy of his decisions, Gregory quoted in the letter fragments of 123-th Novellae by Justinian, as well as some of the constitutions of the Code. This is the only case of direct appeal of the pope to the legislation of Justinian, and generally to the norms of secular law. Partly the literal quoting of fragments of the Code can be explained by lacunae in the canon law of the VI century, which Gregory tried to close with the imperial legislation. However, this explanation is not exhausted. Gregory cited the laws though carefully (preserving the inscription and the subscript, noting the abbreviations, etc.), but still selectively: he leaved behind the scenes those fragments that could not justify his interference and his decision. We do not know exactly, if Corpus iuris civilis was known, how it was applied, so it is probable that the pope's addressees did not have the very books of the Codex and Novellae in their hands, and Gregory had no choice but to quote them. With the support of the norms of the imperial legislation Gregory the Great could defend his point of view in a correspondence dispute with the governor of Byzantine Spain, having taken a decision that was contrary to his interests.